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Toxics 2018, 6(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics6040065

Heavy Metal Mixture Exposure and Effects in Developing Nations: An Update

1
World Bank Africa Centre of Excellence in Oilfield Chemicals Research, University of Port Harcourt, PMB, 5323 Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
2
Department of Experimental Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Port Harcourt, PMB, 5323 Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
3
Department of Experimental Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Madonna University Elele, PMB, 5001 Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity of Chemical Mixtures)
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Abstract

The drive for development and modernization has come at great cost. Various human activities in developed and developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have given rise to environmental safety concerns. Increased artisanal mining activities, illegal refining, use of leaded petrol, airborne dust, arbitrary discarding and burning of toxic waste, absorption of production industries in inhabited areas, inadequate environmental legislation, and weak implementation of policies, have given rise to the incomparable contamination and pollution associated with heavy metals in recent decades. This review evaluates the public health effects of heavy metals and their mixtures in SSA. This shows the extent and size of the problem posed by exposure to heavy metal mixtures in regard to public health. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metal mixtures; environmental pollution; public health effects; Sub-Saharan Africa; epidemiology heavy metal mixtures; environmental pollution; public health effects; Sub-Saharan Africa; epidemiology
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Anyanwu, B.O.; Ezejiofor, A.N.; Igweze, Z.N.; Orisakwe, O.E. Heavy Metal Mixture Exposure and Effects in Developing Nations: An Update. Toxics 2018, 6, 65.

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