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Logistics, Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 19 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Industry 4.0 has recently been one of the most discussed topics in the supply chain management field. As one of the most important supply chain members, Logistics Service Providers (LSPs) should consider the Industry 4.0’s technologies as one of the pillars for their forthcoming strategic paths. Therefore, this paper presents a conceptual framework developed by means of a systematic literature review, which provides a clear guidance to decision-makers of LSPs that aims to design and implement Industry 4.0 programs. The findings from this study also cover a relevant gap in the literature regarding the linkage between Industry 4.0 and Logistics Service Providers. View this paper
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20 pages, 1746 KiB  
Review
Toward Greening City Logistics: A Systematic Review on Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility in Managing Urban Distribution Centers
by Bahareh Mansouri, Subhasmita Sahu and M. Ali Ülkü
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010019 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2921
Abstract
Background: The ramifications of climate change are rampant: All stakeholders must act effectively and swiftly. Unsustainable and increased urbanization adds additional strain on combatting environmental degradation. Since the last decade, urban distribution centers (UDCs) have emerged in response to the steep rise in [...] Read more.
Background: The ramifications of climate change are rampant: All stakeholders must act effectively and swiftly. Unsustainable and increased urbanization adds additional strain on combatting environmental degradation. Since the last decade, urban distribution centers (UDCs) have emerged in response to the steep rise in urban freight transportation and its negative impact on city congestion and air quality. Methods: In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive review of the performance of UDCs and investigate its alignment with the corporate governance (CG) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, including the shareholders’ governance strategies and policies, as well as environmental, social, and economic measures. Our systematic literature review consists of multiple phases: In the first one, we utilize bibliometric tools to implement a quantitative analysis of the extant literature. Next, a cluster-based network analysis complements this analysis to describe the evolution of research in this area. Results: Our descriptive analysis categorizes existing research on UDCs based on CG- and CSR-compliant themes. We classify pertinent peer-reviewed articles into topical clusters and offer research opportunities related to improving the performance of UDCs. Conclusions: This study aims to stimulate further scholarly inquiry into sustainable city logistics and provides a knowledge-based guide for academicians and practitioners, logistics service providers, policymakers, and customers. Full article
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14 pages, 5808 KiB  
Article
A Sustainable Two-Echelon Logistics Model with Shipment Consolidation
by Noha A. Mostafa and Omar Eldebaiky
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010018 - 19 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2903
Abstract
Background: Shipment consolidation is a concept in logistics management in which two or more shipments are transported by using the same vehicle with the aim of using less resources. Methods: The objective of this manuscript is to study shipment consolidation and [...] Read more.
Background: Shipment consolidation is a concept in logistics management in which two or more shipments are transported by using the same vehicle with the aim of using less resources. Methods: The objective of this manuscript is to study shipment consolidation and assess its impact on cost environment, to achieve this, a mathematical model was developed to optimize shipment consolidation while reducing the emissions and minimizing the costs. Results: A case study from major dairy products manufacturers in Egypt was used to validate the model and evaluate the outcomes. A comparison was made between two transportation models, with and without consolidation. Results show that shipment consolidation reduced the total costs by 40% in addition to consuming less fuel, and consequently producing less emissions. Conclusions: These findings emphasize the importance of shipment consolidation and how it can be used to achieve more sustainability in logistics management. Full article
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18 pages, 778 KiB  
Article
Industry 4.0 and Industrial Robots: A Study from the Perspective of Manufacturing Company Employees
by Şemsettin Çiğdem, Ieva Meidute-Kavaliauskiene and Bülent Yıldız
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010017 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 7326
Abstract
Background: Human–robot collaboration is essential for efficient manufacturing and logistics as robots are increasingly used. Using industrial robots as part of an automation system results in many competitive benefits, including improved quality, efficiency, productivity, and reduced waste and errors. When robots are used [...] Read more.
Background: Human–robot collaboration is essential for efficient manufacturing and logistics as robots are increasingly used. Using industrial robots as part of an automation system results in many competitive benefits, including improved quality, efficiency, productivity, and reduced waste and errors. When robots are used in production, human coworkers’ psychological factors can disrupt operations. This study aims to examine the effect of employees’ negative attitudes toward robots on their acceptance of robot technology in manufacturing workplaces. Methods: A survey was conducted with employees in manufacturing companies to collect data on their attitudes towards robots and their willingness to work with them. Data was collected from 499 factory workers in Istanbul using a convenience sampling method, which allowed for the measurement of variables and the analysis of their effects on each other. To analyze the data, structural equation modeling was used. Results: The results indicate that negative attitudes towards robots have a significant negative effect on the acceptance of robot technology in manufacturing workplaces. However, trust in robots was found to be a positive predictor of acceptance. Conclusions: These findings have important implications for manufacturing companies seeking to integrate robot technology into their operations. Addressing employees’ negative attitudes towards robots and building trust in robot technology can increase the acceptance of robots in manufacturing workplaces, leading to improved efficiency and productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lights-Out Logistics)
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18 pages, 1350 KiB  
Article
Production Inventory Optimization Considering Direct and Indirect Carbon Emissions under a Cap-and-Trade Regulation
by Yosef Daryanto and Djoko Setyanto
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010016 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1949
Abstract
Background: The latest global agreement on net-zero emissions encourages new studies on production inventory optimization that promote carbon emissions reduction without harming a company’s profit performance, particularly because certain carbon-pricing regulations bind manufacturing companies. Methods: This study aims to develop a [...] Read more.
Background: The latest global agreement on net-zero emissions encourages new studies on production inventory optimization that promote carbon emissions reduction without harming a company’s profit performance, particularly because certain carbon-pricing regulations bind manufacturing companies. Methods: This study aims to develop a production inventory model that considers direct and indirect emissions in three emission scopes. It incorporates emissions from production, material handling, transportation, and waste disposal for further treatment under a carbon cap-and-trade regulation. With the help of Maple software, a convex total cost function was solved. Results: The results show that the optimum production quantity depends on the values of demand, setup cost, holding cost, fixed cost per delivery, fixed cost for waste disposal, and other parameters related to carbon prices. This study also found that the total cost was highly dependent on the values of the carbon cap, carbon price, and delivery distance. Meanwhile, changes in the delivery distance and fuel emissions standard significantly impacted total emissions. Conclusions: The proposed model can guide manufacturing companies in setting the optimum production quantity per cycle. Moreover, they must carefully manage the delivery and setting of the carbon cap and carbon price from the government. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Logistics in the New Era)
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1 pages, 156 KiB  
Retraction
Retraction: Mouafo Nebot, G.V.; Wang, H. Port Terminal Performance Evaluation and Modeling. Logistics 2022, 6, 10
by Giscard Valonne Mouafo Nebot and Haiyan Wang
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010015 - 3 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1146
Abstract
The journal Logistics retracts the article “Port Terminal Performance Evaluation and Modeling” [...] Full article
24 pages, 2797 KiB  
Article
A Mixed-Integer Linear Formulation for a Dynamic Modified Stochastic p-Median Problem in a Competitive Supply Chain Network Design
by Amir Hossein Sadeghi, Ziyuan Sun, Amirreza Sahebi-Fakhrabad, Hamid Arzani and Robert Handfield
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010014 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4664
Abstract
Background: The Dynamic Modified Stochastic p-Median Problem (DMS-p-MP) is an important problem in supply chain network design, as it deals with the optimal location of facilities and the allocation of demand in a dynamic and uncertain environment. Methods: In this research [...] Read more.
Background: The Dynamic Modified Stochastic p-Median Problem (DMS-p-MP) is an important problem in supply chain network design, as it deals with the optimal location of facilities and the allocation of demand in a dynamic and uncertain environment. Methods: In this research paper, we propose a mixed-integer linear formulation for the DMS-p-MP, which captures the key features of the problem and allows for efficient solution methods. The DMS-p-MP adds two key features to the classical problem: (1) it considers the dynamic nature of the problem, where the demand is uncertain and changes over time, and (2) it allows for the modification of the facility locations over time, subject to a fixed number of modifications. The proposed model uses robust optimization in order to address the uncertainty of demand by allowing for the optimization of solutions that are not overly sensitive to small changes in the data or parameters. To manage the computational challenges presented by large-scale DMS-p-MP networks, a Lagrangian relaxation (LR) algorithm is employed. Results: Our computational study in a real-life case study demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed formulation in solving the DMS p-Median Problem. The results show that the number of opened and closed buildings remains unchanged as the time horizon increases due to the periodic nature of our demand. Conclusions: This formulation can be applied to real-world problems, providing decision-makers with an effective tool to optimize their supply chain network design in a dynamic and uncertain environment. Full article
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17 pages, 704 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Strategic Procurement 4.0 Performance on Organizational Competitiveness in the Circular Economy
by Răzvan-Andrei Corboș, Ovidiu-Iulian Bunea and Daniel-Constantin Jiroveanu
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010013 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5958
Abstract
Background: This study aims to identify how and if strategic procurement 4.0 performance influences competitiveness under circular economy conditions. In this regard, to achieve the aim of the study, we examine the moderating and mediating effects of strategic procurement 4.0 performance. In [...] Read more.
Background: This study aims to identify how and if strategic procurement 4.0 performance influences competitiveness under circular economy conditions. In this regard, to achieve the aim of the study, we examine the moderating and mediating effects of strategic procurement 4.0 performance. In addition, the paper explores the role of procurement 4.0 in the circular economy and its impact on organizational competitiveness, with a focus on the mediating factors in the relationship between manager attitudes and competitiveness, making a significant contribution to the emerging research in this field. Methods: The results of a two-way moderated multiple regression analysis showed that there is an effect that intensifies the relationship between the variables being studied. Mediating effects were tested using Smart PLS-4 and the results showed significant mediating effects of strategy for procurement 4.0 and planning for procurement 4.0. Results: The study found that organizations with high strategic procurement 4.0 performance and high circular economy openness have the highest level of competitiveness. However, low levels of circular economy openness result in similar competitiveness levels regardless of low or average strategic procurement 4.0 performance. Conclusions: We found that strategic procurement 4.0, aligned with sustainability goals and incorporating digital technologies, leads to increased competitiveness in the context of the circular economy, as demonstrated in the Romanian business environment. Moreover, our study highlights the importance of strategic training in procurement 4.0, the need for a three-level approach in procurement strategy, planning, and performance review, and the significance of considering non-financial aspects in competitiveness and innovation within the context of a circular economy. Full article
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21 pages, 640 KiB  
Article
Knowledge-Based Human Resource Management, Logistics Capability, and Organizational Performance in Small Finnish Logistics Service Providers
by Pietro Evangelista, Aino Kianto, Henri Hussinki, Mika Vanhala and Anna-Maija Nisula
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010012 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4144
Abstract
Background: In the current knowledge age, the performance of logistics firms increasingly depends on knowledge and capabilities they can leverage in value-creation processes. The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between knowledge-based human resource management (HRM) practices and organizational performance [...] Read more.
Background: In the current knowledge age, the performance of logistics firms increasingly depends on knowledge and capabilities they can leverage in value-creation processes. The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between knowledge-based human resource management (HRM) practices and organizational performance mediated by logistics capability. Methods: Data from 93 small Finnish logistics service providers was collected by a questionnaire survey. Structural equation modeling and partial least squares analysis were used to test the hypothesized relationships between HRM practices and the organizational performance of logistics companies, as well as the mediating impact of logistics capability. Results: The results demonstrate that logistics capability fully mediates the relationship between HRM practices and the organizational performance of small logistics companies. Each of the three knowledge-based HRM practices—knowledge-based recruitment, training and development, and motivation—significantly influences logistics capability, which is, in turn, associated with the organizational performance of companies. Conclusions: This paper is one of the few among discussing knowledge-based HRM practices in logistics service research. The paper contributes to the literature on logistics by demonstrating the value of knowledge-based HRM practices in acquiring, developing, and leveraging knowledge to create organizational capabilities and ensure organizational performance. This study provides an improved understanding of the role of HRM and the resulting logistics capability in the performance of small logistics service companies. Full article
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26 pages, 2383 KiB  
Review
Logistics Service Providers and Industry 4.0: A Systematic Literature Review
by Ricardo Moreira da Silva, Guilherme Francisco Frederico and Jose Arturo Garza-Reyes
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010011 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4851
Abstract
Background: Industry 4.0 is one of the topics related to manufacturing, supply chain and logistics that has received great interest from the academic community, organizations and governments in the last decade. Problem statement: Several published articles discuss and seek to conceptualize what the [...] Read more.
Background: Industry 4.0 is one of the topics related to manufacturing, supply chain and logistics that has received great interest from the academic community, organizations and governments in the last decade. Problem statement: Several published articles discuss and seek to conceptualize what the fourth industrial revolution is, but no research relates Industry 4.0 in the context of logistics service providers (LSPs) in a clear and structured way. Objectives: This study aims to fill this research gap, proposing a conceptual framework and addressing the challenges, barriers and organizational dimensions that need adaptation to insert LSPs in the new Industry 4.0 environment. Methods: This theoretical and conceptual study uses the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) as a research method to understand the Industry 4.0 phenomenon in the context of LSPs. Contributions: The relevant constructs identified in this research will help professionals and organizations that provide logistics services to develop strategies and encourage new research in the field of Industry 4.0 from the perspective of LSPs. Results: In addition, this research identified and generally consolidated six dimensions, as a result of this innovative study a conceptual framework is presented. Full article
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17 pages, 3492 KiB  
Article
Locating Collection and Delivery Points Using the p-Median Location Problem
by Snežana Tadić, Mladen Krstić, Željko Stević and Miloš Veljović
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010010 - 6 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2072
Abstract
Background: Possible solutions to overcome the many challenges of home delivery are collection and delivery points (CDPs). In addition to commercial facilities, the role of CDPs can also be played by users’ households, providing a crowd storage service. Key decisions regarding CDPs [...] Read more.
Background: Possible solutions to overcome the many challenges of home delivery are collection and delivery points (CDPs). In addition to commercial facilities, the role of CDPs can also be played by users’ households, providing a crowd storage service. Key decisions regarding CDPs relate to their location, as well as the allocation of users to selected locations, so that the distance of users from CDPs is minimal. Methods: In this paper, the described problem is defined as a p-median problem and solved for the area of the city of Belgrade, using the heuristic “greedy” and the simulated annealing algorithm. Results: Fifty locations of CDPs were selected and the users allocated to them were distributed in over 950 zones. The individual distances between users and the nearest CDPs and the sum of these distances, multiplied by the number of requests, were obtained. An example of modification of the number of CDPs is presented as a way of obtaining solutions that correspond to different preferences of operators and/or users in terms of their distances from the CDPs. Conclusions: User households can be used as CDPs to achieve various benefits. Locating CDPs, i.e., selecting households, can be solved as a p-median problem, using a combination of heuristic and metaheuristic algorithms. In addition, by modifying the number of medians, the total and average distances between users and CDPs can be better managed. The main contributions of the paper are the establishment of users’ households as potential locations of CDPs, the establishment of a framework for analysis of impact of the number of CDPs on the sum and average distances from the customers, as well as the creation of a basis for upgrading and modifying the model for implementation in the business practice. Full article
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4 pages, 158 KiB  
Editorial
Supply Chain 4.0: New Generation of Supply Chain Management
by Xue-Ming Yuan and Anrong Xue
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010009 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3084
Abstract
Industry 4 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supply Chain 4.0: New Generation of Supply Chain Management)
27 pages, 4914 KiB  
Article
The Role of the Top 50 US Cargo Airports and 25 Air Cargo Airlines in the Logistics of E-Commerce Companies
by Lázaro Florido-Benítez
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010008 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 12390
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this study is to analyse the role of the main 50 US cargo airports and 25 air cargo airlines in the logistics of e-commerce companies from 2000 to 2020, to highlight the importance of airports in the logistics and [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this study is to analyse the role of the main 50 US cargo airports and 25 air cargo airlines in the logistics of e-commerce companies from 2000 to 2020, to highlight the importance of airports in the logistics and e-commerce industries. Methods: A review of the relevant literature on airports, air cargo carriers, logistics, and e-commerce sectors was undertaken to understand the link between them. The data were collected using four criteria: airport category, airport location, top 25 air cargo carriers, and other relevant data from the Federal Aviation Administration, International Air Transport Association, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, US Department of Transportation, amongst many others. Results: The findings reveal that there is a consolidated relationship between airports, air cargo airlines, and e-commerce, which has been especially evident during the COVID-19 pandemic. Airports and air cargo carriers are identified as the most relevant partners in the e-commerce industry. This is because of the e-commerce sector and its users’ demand for speed and reliability in the interaction between the demand for and supply of products and services. Conclusions: The pandemic has changed the way in which organizations operate and is likely to create new demand from companies and users in the aviation and e-commerce industries. E-commerce companies are highly dependent on the quality and efficiency of air cargo airlines and airports because they need to provide a good shipping service for their products to customers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Last Mile, E-Commerce and Sales Logistics)
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12 pages, 1344 KiB  
Article
Design of a Company-Engagement Model for Procurement and Supply Management Classes
by Remko van Hoek and Dominique Lebigot
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010007 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
Background: There are opportunities to enrich procurement and supply management classes to be more international and to engage with industry more deeply. Methods: Using a design science method this paper develops a course design for teaching procurement that enriches existing approaches to company [...] Read more.
Background: There are opportunities to enrich procurement and supply management classes to be more international and to engage with industry more deeply. Methods: Using a design science method this paper develops a course design for teaching procurement that enriches existing approaches to company engagement in courses. Results: Beyond the use of stand-alone guest lectures, case studies, or in-company projects, the design involved semester-long collaboration around core topics for the course, involving company lectures and multiple student projects aligned with the course topics, engaging multiple levels of managers from around the globe. Based upon an evaluation of the first-year collaboration, improvements were identified that were implemented in year two of the collaboration. Conclsuions: The design brings course learning into a real-world context and supports student skill development through project work. Full article
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24 pages, 3035 KiB  
Review
Scope for Sustainable Development of Small Holder Farmers in the Palm Oil Supply Chain—A Systematic Literature Review and Thematic Scientific Mapping
by Ahmed Zainul Abideen, Veera Pandiyan Kaliani Sundram and Shahryar Sorooshian
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010006 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3289
Abstract
Background: The expansion of oil palm agriculture across the nations, especially in countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia, is growing at exacerbated levels. However, there is still a lack of awareness of the environmental, social, and economic challenges among the sector, ranging [...] Read more.
Background: The expansion of oil palm agriculture across the nations, especially in countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia, is growing at exacerbated levels. However, there is still a lack of awareness of the environmental, social, and economic challenges among the sector, ranging from the combination of ecological, economic, and ecosystem sustainability to the livelihoods of plantation workers and small holder communities. Small holders struggle to attain the primary standards on market governance, debt-free livelihood enhancements, certification norms, proper land rights and usage, outsourcing quality seeds, harvesting technologies, labor usage, etc. Method: There is a need to systematize the existing literature toward one that addresses the most fundamental and urgent questions that govern the palm oil small holder sustainability in the palm oil supply chain. The objective of this article is two-fold. One approach was to undertake an integrated systematic review and thematic scientific mapping of the last 10 years of research effort (2009–2020) on the specified research agenda, using data from the Web of Science (WoS) core collection database. Another objective was to gain insights and research direction. Results: The defined gaps and insights from the study helped to form the basis for developing a conceptual framework for achieving the sustainability and livelihood of small holders in the palm oil sector. Conclusions: There is a stringent need to focus on the sustainability factors of small holders in the palm oil upstream logistics to address and improve the overall efficiency of the supply chain. Full article
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22 pages, 4570 KiB  
Article
Location Allocation of Biorefineries for a Switchgrass-Based Bioethanol Supply Chain Using Energy Consumption and Emissions
by Seyed Ali Haji Esmaeili, Ahmad Sobhani, Sajad Ebrahimi, Joseph Szmerekovsky, Alan Dybing and Amin Keramati
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010005 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2468
Abstract
Background: Due to the growing demand for energy and environmental issues related to using fossil fuels, it is becoming tremendously important to find alternative energy sources. Bioethanol produced from switchgrass is considered as one of the best alternatives to fossil fuels. Methods [...] Read more.
Background: Due to the growing demand for energy and environmental issues related to using fossil fuels, it is becoming tremendously important to find alternative energy sources. Bioethanol produced from switchgrass is considered as one of the best alternatives to fossil fuels. Methods: This study develops a two-stage supply chain modeling approach that first determines feasible locations for constructing switchgrass-based biorefineries in the state of North Dakota by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis. In the second stage, the profit of the corresponding switchgrass-based bioethanol supply chain is maximized by developing a mixed-integer linear program that aims to commercialize the bioethanol production while impacts of energy use and carbon emission costs on the supply chain decisions and siting of biorefineries are included. Results: The numerical results show that carbon emissions and energy consumption penalties affect optimal biorefinery selections and supply chain decisions. Conclusions: We conclude that there is no need to penalize both emissions and energy use simultaneously to achieve desirable environmental benefits, otherwise, the supply chain becomes non-profitable. Moreover, imposing emissions or energy consumption penalties makes the optimization model closer to supply sources while having higher land rental costs. Such policies would promote sustainable second-generation biomass production, thus decreasing reliance on fossil fuels. Full article
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3 pages, 177 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Logistics in 2022
by Logistics Editorial Office
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010004 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 966
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
33 pages, 4931 KiB  
Article
Designing a New Location-Allocation and Routing Model with Simultaneous Pick-Up and Delivery in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain Network under Uncertainty
by Mehrnaz Bathaee, Hamed Nozari and Agnieszka Szmelter-Jarosz
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010003 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2708
Abstract
Background: In this paper, a new closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) network model, including economic, social and environmental goals, is designed. This paper’s primary purpose is to meet customers’ uncertain demands in different scenarios where the new robust-fuzzy-probabilistic method has been used to estimate [...] Read more.
Background: In this paper, a new closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) network model, including economic, social and environmental goals, is designed. This paper’s primary purpose is to meet customers’ uncertain demands in different scenarios where the new robust-fuzzy-probabilistic method has been used to estimate the exact demand. Furthermore, strategic and tactical decisions, such as vehicle routing, facility location and optimal flow allocation in the CLSC network, are considered, and features such as queuing system in product distribution and time window in product delivery are considered. Methods: To solve the problem, NSGA II and MOPSO have been used. Results: The results of solving numerical examples in larger sizes show that as the environmental effects decrease and the social effects increase, the design costs of the total supply chain network (SCN) increase. Moreover, the NSGA II is more efficient than the MOPSO in problem-solving and achieving comparison indicators. Conclusions: The results of sensitivity analysis show that with increasing network uncertainty rate, the total costs of the SCN, the amount of greenhouse gas emissions and the maximum vehicle traffic time increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainability and Reverse Logistics)
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13 pages, 2562 KiB  
Article
A Simulation Approach for Waste Reduction in the Bread Supply Chain
by Arvind Bhardwaj, Rachit Soni, Lakhwinder Pal Singh and Rahul S Mor
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010002 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2185
Abstract
Background: Bread, a basic need for the survival of human beings, is highly perishable, has a short shelf-life, and loses its quality and potency after its date of expiry. This leads to a considerable amount of bread waste and loss in the [...] Read more.
Background: Bread, a basic need for the survival of human beings, is highly perishable, has a short shelf-life, and loses its quality and potency after its date of expiry. This leads to a considerable amount of bread waste and loss in the economy. This study explores and analyses the most common causes of wastage in the bread supply chain and proposes key strategies for waste mitigation in bread-producing industries in the context of Indian bakeries. Methods: Based on a systematic literature review and pilot studies, Monte-Carlo simulation techniques were applied to conduct the analysis. Results: The results indicate that bread should be recalled from the market after three days rather than the usual six, and the strategy used by companies A and E (in this study) is recommended. Conclusions: These tactics ensure that any bread returned to the company is in great condition, giving us two to three days to transform the bread into some by-products. It will help managers, decision makers, and specialists create a successful waste-reduction strategy. Full article
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17 pages, 622 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Digital Technologies and Sustainable Practices on Circular Supply Chain Management
by Sara Romagnoli, Claudia Tarabu', Behzad Maleki Vishkaei and Pietro De Giovanni
Logistics 2023, 7(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/logistics7010001 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 8511
Abstract
Background: This study investigates how firms can enhance the functionality of their circular supply chains (CSCs) by adopting a portfolio of sustainable practices as well as digital technologies to increase performance. It analyzes the benefits that firms can obtain when investing in [...] Read more.
Background: This study investigates how firms can enhance the functionality of their circular supply chains (CSCs) by adopting a portfolio of sustainable practices as well as digital technologies to increase performance. It analyzes the benefits that firms can obtain when investing in specific technologies to boost the impact of technologies and sustainable practices on CSCs, and further increase performance. Methods: We test several hypotheses by using structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analysis to verify whether CSCs can be achieved through sustainable practices and technologies and improve the firms’ performance. Results: The empirical results partially support the research hypotheses. While the main research hypotheses are fully supported, the analysis of single digital technologies reveals that only a few solutions can contribute to both the management and the improvement of the CSC. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that the identification of green suppliers and ad hoc environmental regulations, combined with attention to the origin and provenance of raw materials, can promote a CSC. Moreover, transportation management systems (TMS) and the internet of things (IoT) are efficient technologies for managing transportation and product flow in the CSC. Furthermore, machine learning (ML) is effective in making positive green decisions, and 3D printing can extend product life. Full article
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