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Open AccessArticle

Vitamin D3 in High-Quality Cow Milk: An Italian Case Study

1
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum—Università di Bologna, Viale Fanin 40, 40127 Bologna, Italy
2
Free University of Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, Piazza Università 1, 39100 Bozen-Bolzano, Italy
3
Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences (D3A)—Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
4
Interdepartmental Centre for Industrial Agrofood Research, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Via Quinto Bucci 33, 47521 Cesena, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(5), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050548
Received: 26 March 2020 / Revised: 20 April 2020 / Accepted: 21 April 2020 / Published: 1 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oils and Bioactive Lipids: Quality, Stability, and Funcitionality)
The quality-labeling category of high-quality (HQ) milk defined by the Italian legislation must comply with specific requirements concerning rigorous breeder management, hygienic controls, fat and protein content, bacterial load, somatic cells, lactic acid content, and non-denatured soluble serum proteins. However, there is no specification for the vitamin D content of HQ milk. Moreover, the data on the vitamin D content of this milk category are very scarce. In the present study, the content of vitamin D3 was evaluated in HQ raw and pasteurized cow milk obtained from Italian cowsheds and supermarkets. The vitamin D3 content varied from not detected (less than 1 µg L−1) to 17.0 ± 2.0 µg L−1 milk and was not related to the milk fat content. These results represent a case study including a significant although not exhaustive part of the contemporary Italian market of HQ milk. It was shown for the first time that HQ raw milk does not necessarily contain more vitamin D3, even though non-expert consumers likely to buy milk labeled as HQ could expect it. The vitamin D3 content in HQ pasteurized whole milk should be reported on the label of the milk package as a best practice of consumer information policy. View Full-Text
Keywords: cholecalciferol; high-quality cow milk; Italy; pasteurized cow milk; raw cow milk; vitamin D3; consumers; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); mass spectrometry cholecalciferol; high-quality cow milk; Italy; pasteurized cow milk; raw cow milk; vitamin D3; consumers; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); mass spectrometry
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Mandrioli, M.; Boselli, E.; Fiori, F.; Rodriguez-Estrada, M.T. Vitamin D3 in High-Quality Cow Milk: An Italian Case Study. Foods 2020, 9, 548.

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