Microbial multidrug resistance (MDR) is a growing threat to public health mostly because it makes the fight against microorganisms that cause lethal infections ever less effective. Thus, the surveillance on MDR microorganisms has recently been strengthened, taking into account the control of antibiotic abuse as well as the mechanisms underlying the transfer of antibiotic genes (ARGs) among microbiota naturally occurring in the environment. Indeed, ARGs are not only confined to pathogenic bacteria, whose diffusion in the clinical field has aroused serious concerns, but are widespread in saprophytic bacterial communities such as those dominating the food industry. In particular, fresh dairy products can be considered a reservoir of Pseudomonas
spp. resistome, potentially transmittable to consumers. Milk and fresh dairy cheeses products represent one of a few “hubs” where commensal or opportunistic pseudomonads frequently cohabit together with food microbiota and hazard pathogens even across their manufacturing processes. Pseudomonas
spp., widely studied for food spoilage effects, are instead underestimated for their possible impact on human health. Recent evidences have highlighted that non-pathogenic pseudomonads strains (P. fluorescens, P. putida
) are associated with some human diseases, but are still poorly considered in comparison to the pathogen P. aeruginosa.
In addition, the presence of ARGs, that can be acquired and transmitted by horizontal genetic transfer, further increases their risk and the need to be deeper investigated. Therefore, this review, starting from the general aspects related to the physiological traits of these spoilage microorganisms from fresh dairy products, aims to shed light on the resistome of cheese-related pseudomonads and their genomic background, current methods and advances in the prediction tools for MDR detection based on genomic sequences, possible implications for human health, and the affordable strategies to counteract MDR spread.
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