Salmonella, Food Safety and Food Handling Practices
2.1. Occurrence of Salmonella
2.2. Epidemiology and Pathogenicity
2.3. Food Products Associated with Salmonella
2.4. Salmonella and Vegetable Produce
3. Global Burden of Salmonellosis
4. Control of Salmonellosis
4.1. Food Hygiene Practices
4.2. Food Handler Effects
Hygienic Meat Handling Practices
4.3. Ready-to-Eat (RTE) Foods and Processed Foods with Needed Control
4.4. Knowledge vs. Behavioural Training Models
5. Future Perspective and Conclusions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Food||Salmonella Serotypes||Survival Times||Reference|
|Dried milk products||S. Infantis,|
|S. Typhimurium SL 1344,|
|Milk chocolate||S. Infantis,|
|>9 months at 20 °C|||
|Bitter chocolate||S. Eastbourne||≤9 months at 20 °C|||
|Halva||S. Enteritidis||>8 months at refrigeration temp|||
|Peanut butter||S. Agona,|
|≤24 weeks at 5 °C|
≤6 weeks at 21 °C
|Paprika powder||multiple serotypes||>8 months|||
|Salmonella Strains||Pet/Pet Food Product||Cases||Locations Affected||References|
|S. Typhimurium||Small Pet Turtles||34 reported cases and |
|S. Oranienburg||Small Pet Turtles||26 reported cases and |
|Pig Ear Pet Treats||154 reported cases and |
|Salmonella spp.||Backyard Poultry||1134 reported cases, |
and 2 deaths
|Salmonella spp.||Poultry in Backyard Flocks||1120 reported cases, |
and 1 death
|S. Reading||Paws Ground Turkey Food for Pets||90 reported cases||26|||
|Salmonella spp.||Reptiles||449 hospitalizations||Ireland|||
|Salmonella Strain||Food Product||Cases||Locations |
|S. Javiana||Pre-cut fruits||165 reported cases and 73 hospitalizations||14|||
|S. Newport||Red Onions||640 reported cases and 85 hospitalizations||43|||
|S. Javiana||Fruit Mix||165 reported cases and 73 hospitalizations||14|||
|S. Uganda||Cavi Brand Whole, Fresh Papayas||81 reported cases and 27 hospitalizations||9|||
|S. Newport||Frozen Raw Tuna||15 reported cases and 2 hospitalizations||8|||
|S. Carrau||Pre-Cut Melons||137 reported cases and 38 hospitalizations||10|||
|S. Uganda||Fresh Papayas||81 reported cases and 27 hospitalizations||9|||
|S. Dublin||Reblochon (bovine raw-milk cheese)||83 reported cases and 41 hospitalizations and 10b deaths||France|||
|S. Agona||infant milk products||37 case and 18 were hospitalized||France|||
|S. Infantis||Raw chicken products||129 reported cases and 25 hospitalizations||32|||
|S. Bovismorbificans||uncooked ham products||57 cases and 15 hospitalizations||Netherlands|||
|S. Mbandaka||Kellogg’s Honey |
|135 reported cases and 34 hospitalizations||36|||
|S. Enteritidis PT14b*||Egg and chicken products||287 reported cases and 78 hospitalizations||North West and South of England|||
|S. enterica, non-typhoidal||153,097,991||56,969|||
|Invasive non-typhoidal S. enterica||596,824||63,312|||
|Invasive non-typhoidal S. enterica||535,000||77,500|||
|S. enterica Paratyphi A||4,826,477||33,325|||
|S. enterica Typhi||20,984,683||144,890|||
|Australia||2015||AUD 146.8 million|||
|Canada||2000–2015||CAD 287.78 million|||
|USA||2011||USD 394 million|||
|European Commission||Regulation (EC) No 1177/2006||Overall implement acts on application of antimicrobial agents and vaccines for poultry birds|
|Regulation (EC) No 2008/798/EC||Overall implement acts for importing live birds and eggs|
|Regulation (EC) No 517/2011||Reduction in flocks of laying hens|
|Regulation (EC) No 200/2010||Standard sampling and monitoring of Gallus gallus to reduce Salmonella among breeding stocks|
|Decision (EC) No 1237/2007||Strict requirement mandating all eggs meant for trade must follow national control programs across the chain|
|Regulation (EC) No 200/2012||Standard sampling and monitoring for reduction of Salmonella in broilers|
|Regulation (EC) No 1190/2012||Standard sampling and monitoring for reduction of Salmonella in fattening and breeding turkeys|
|World Health Organization||Global Foodborne Infections |
|Ensuring efficient oversight of |
antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella strains across the food chain; acquiring and testing samples along with data analysis
|WHO Advisory Group on Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (AGISAR)||Working with FAO in prompt detection and response to food outbreaks by supporting national competent |
authorities at such periods
|International Network of Food Safety Authorities (INFOSAN)||Provides risk assessment data that serve as guidelines for international standards and recommendations through the Codex Alimentarius Commission|
|Prevention steps should be applied at all stages of the food chain: from primary production, processing, distribution, sales |
|Salmonella prevention steps recommended in the food handlers handbook should be followed.|
|The contact between children and domesticated animals |
|The public is advised to follow national and regional surveillance systems on foodborne diseases to be aware, detect and respond |
rapidly to salmonellosis outbreaks early and halt the spread.
|Recommendations for the public and travellers||Food must always be cooked properly and served hot|
|Only pasteurized milk and its products should be consumed|
|Fruits and vegetables should be washed adequately |
|Hands should be washed adequately after contacting animals |
or using the restroom.
|Ice meant for consumption must be made from potable water|
|Recommendations for food handlers||Food handlers should observe ingredients and follow hygienic food preparation rules.|
|Provision of Five keys to safer food which provides a basis for food safety training courses both for professionals and consumers. They centre on: keeping clean, separating raw from cooked foods, |
cooking adequately, storing at correct temperatures and use
of potable water
|Recommendations for producers of fruits and |
|Practice good personal hygiene.|
|Faecal pollution should be avoided|
|Only treated faecal waste is permitted|
|Irrigation water should be treated and well managed.|
|Recommendations for producers of |
|Practice good personal hygiene.|
|Pond environment should be clean|
|Water quality should be managed.|
|Harvest equipment should be hygienic|
|Ensure fish is healthy.|
|Interview using questionnaire||29% of all food handlers never had a food safety training course. |
More than 60% of the hospital staff had either good or satisfactory Food Safety Knowledge (FSK) but these did not contribute to better Food Safety Outcomes.
|Semi-structured questionnaire||68% had not taken basic food safety training. There was no knowledge of appropriate temperatures for refrigeration and hot RTE foods.|||
|Survey||Knowledge of food handling was below 10.8% and food poisoning below 20.1%—both were critically low.|||
|Ethiopia||Survey||Unsatisfactory meet handling practice especially after smoking, sneezing, and coughing.|||
|Norway, Denmark, Germany, Spain and the UK||Microbiological testing and Hygiene Performance Rating audits||Hygiene is a major issue in Slaughter Operational issues|||
|Pakistan||Cross-tabulations, chi-square, and correlation tests.||Unhygienic vending practices for ready-to-eat foods|||
|Global||Analysis of 81 full-text articles||Internalisation of food products across several countries increases risks for poor handling and food safety|||
|Country||Training Method||Study Type||Behaviour||Conclusion||Reference|
|USA||Knowledge and |
behaviour-based online training video
question quiz from Servy Safe coursebook
|Observation by |
|Behaviour-based training improves handwashing better than knowledge-based training especially during peak hours|||
|Malaysia||Food safety |
training course based on
|31 questions||Self-reported questionnaire and researcher observations||Behaviour-based training performed better in certain areas than the control group|||
|USA||Two hours ServSave training||Questionnaire||Self-reported||Volunteers reported a |
significant increase in food safety knowledge, but behaviour
|USA||Customized lessons |
|Questionnaire||Researcher Observation||Significant |
improvement in Food safety knowledge
|Korea||Lecture and demonstrations||Questionnaire||Self-reported questionnaire and researcher observations||Increase in knowledge was statistically significant|
Intervention did not
produce a change
|USA||Four hours ServSafe class and behaviour training||Questionnaire||Researcher Observation||Hand washing knowledge and behaviour |
Improved but these did not improve general
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Ehuwa, O.; Jaiswal, A.K.; Jaiswal, S. Salmonella, Food Safety and Food Handling Practices. Foods 2021, 10, 907. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050907
Ehuwa O, Jaiswal AK, Jaiswal S. Salmonella, Food Safety and Food Handling Practices. Foods. 2021; 10(5):907. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050907Chicago/Turabian Style
Ehuwa, Olugbenga, Amit K. Jaiswal, and Swarna Jaiswal. 2021. "Salmonella, Food Safety and Food Handling Practices" Foods 10, no. 5: 907. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050907