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Review

Apple Fermented Products: An Overview of Technology, Properties and Health Effects

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CERNAS Research Centre, Department of Food Industry, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, 3504-510 Viseu, Portugal
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Molecular Physical-Chemistry R&D Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra, Portugal
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Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Department of Food Safety and Quality, Faculty of Veterinary, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Tilzes str. 18, LT-47181 Kaunas, Lithuania
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School of Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, 6001-909 Castelo Branco, Portugal
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Forest Research Centre, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, 1349-017 Lisbon, Portugal
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Spectroscopy and Chromatography Laboratory, Centro de Biotecnologia de Plantas da Beira Interior, 6001-909 Castelo Branco, Portugal
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dariusz Dziki
Processes 2021, 9(2), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020223
Received: 26 December 2020 / Revised: 16 January 2021 / Accepted: 19 January 2021 / Published: 25 January 2021
As an easily adapted culture, with overloaded production in some parts of the globe, apples and their by-products are being redirected to pharmaceutical, canning and beverages industries, both alcoholic and non-alcoholic. Fermentation is generally considered to increase the bioavailability of bioactive compounds found in apple, by impacting, through a high degree of changes, the product’s properties, including composition and health-promoting attributes, as well as their sensory profile. Probiotic apple beverages and apple vinegar are generally considered as safe and healthy products by the consumers. Recently, contributions to human health, both in vivo and in vitro studies, of non-alcoholic fermented apple-based products have been described. This review highlighted the advances in the process optimization of apple-based products considering vinegar, cider, pomace, probiotic beverages and spirits’ technologies. The different processing impacts on physical-chemical, nutritional and sensory profiles of these products are also presented. Additionally, the harmful effects of toxic compounds and strategies to limit their content in cider and apple spirits are illustrated. New trends of fermented apple-based products applicability in tangential industries are summarized. View Full-Text
Keywords: apple pomace; cider; vinegar; probiotic beverage; spirit; alcoholic fermentation; malolactic fermentation; acetic fermentation apple pomace; cider; vinegar; probiotic beverage; spirit; alcoholic fermentation; malolactic fermentation; acetic fermentation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guiné, R.P.F.; Barroca, M.J.; Coldea, T.E.; Bartkiene, E.; Anjos, O. Apple Fermented Products: An Overview of Technology, Properties and Health Effects. Processes 2021, 9, 223. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020223

AMA Style

Guiné RPF, Barroca MJ, Coldea TE, Bartkiene E, Anjos O. Apple Fermented Products: An Overview of Technology, Properties and Health Effects. Processes. 2021; 9(2):223. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020223

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guiné, Raquel P. F., Maria João Barroca, Teodora Emilia Coldea, Elena Bartkiene, and Ofélia Anjos. 2021. "Apple Fermented Products: An Overview of Technology, Properties and Health Effects" Processes 9, no. 2: 223. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020223

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