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Nanoemulsions: Factory for Food, Pharmaceutical and Cosmetics

International Institute for Halal Research and Training (INHART), International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 10, Kuala Lumpur 50728, Malaysia
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2019, 7(9), 617;
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 24 August 2019 / Accepted: 31 August 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Sustainable Chemical Processes)
Nanotechnology, particularly nanoemulsions (NEs), have gained increasing interest from researchers throughout the years. The small-sized droplet with a high surface area makes NEs important in many industries. In this review article, the components, properties, formation, and applications are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages are also described in this article. The formation of the nanosized emulsion can be divided into two types: high and low energy methods. In high energy methods, high-pressure homogenization, microfluidization, and ultrasonic emulsification are described thoroughly. Spontaneous emulsification, phase inversion temperature (PIT), phase inversion composition (PIC), and the less known D-phase emulsification (DPE) methods are emphasized in low energy methods. The applications of NEs are described in three main areas which are food, cosmetics, and drug delivery. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoemulsions (NEs); oil-in-water; ultrasonication; homogenization; cosmetics; pharmaceutical nanoemulsions (NEs); oil-in-water; ultrasonication; homogenization; cosmetics; pharmaceutical
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Azmi, N.A.N.; Elgharbawy, A.A.M.; Motlagh, S.R.; Samsudin, N.; Salleh, H.M. Nanoemulsions: Factory for Food, Pharmaceutical and Cosmetics. Processes 2019, 7, 617.

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