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Factors Affecting the Quality of Sleep in Children
Open AccessArticle

Sleep and the General Behavior of Infants and Parents during the Closure of Schools as a Result of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Comparison with 2019 Data

1
Molecular Research Center for Children’s Mental Development, United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
2
Research Center for Child Mental Development, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193, Japan
3
Department of Child Development, United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jason Gilliland
Children 2021, 8(2), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8020168
Received: 31 January 2021 / Revised: 15 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Factors Affecting the Quality of Sleep in Children)
This study compared cross-sectional data from online surveys describing the sleep behavior of infants and caregivers in March 2020 (the school closure period during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic; n = 295, 23.8 ± 3.8 months old) and March 2019 (before the pandemic; n = 2017, 24.2 ± 3.8 months old). In comparing those two points in time, no significant differences were found in wake-up times (2019: 7:19 ± 0:46 am vs. 2020: 7:18 ± 0:47 am, p = 0.289), bedtimes (21:01 ± 0:48 pm vs. 21:04 ± 0:53 pm, p = 0.144), or nocturnal sleep times (593.7 ± 43.9 min vs. 588.1 ± 50.3 min, p = 0.613). Regarding the caregivers, in 2020, wake-up times (2019: 6:46 ± 0:50 am vs. 2020: 6:39 ± 0:50 am, p = 0.017) and bedtimes (22:53 ± 1:17 pm vs. 22:42 ± 1:04 pm, p = 0.016) became significantly earlier compared to 2019. Among infants staying at home, total sleep time and percentage of outdoor play decreased significantly, and media use increased significantly in 2020. Lower levels of exercise and more frequent media viewing may have caused prolonged sleep latency in these children. The percentage of caregivers responding with “negative childcare feelings” was significantly higher in the group with less than three nursery school attendance days. Caregivers and infants staying at home are a high-risk group during the pandemic. View Full-Text
Keywords: pandemic; lifestyle; nursery school; smartphone; exercise pandemic; lifestyle; nursery school; smartphone; exercise
MDPI and ACS Style

Shinomiya, Y.; Yoshizaki, A.; Murata, E.; Fujisawa, T.X.; Taniike, M.; Mohri, I. Sleep and the General Behavior of Infants and Parents during the Closure of Schools as a Result of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Comparison with 2019 Data. Children 2021, 8, 168. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8020168

AMA Style

Shinomiya Y, Yoshizaki A, Murata E, Fujisawa TX, Taniike M, Mohri I. Sleep and the General Behavior of Infants and Parents during the Closure of Schools as a Result of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Comparison with 2019 Data. Children. 2021; 8(2):168. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8020168

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shinomiya, Yasuaki; Yoshizaki, Arika; Murata, Emi; Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Taniike, Masako; Mohri, Ikuko. 2021. "Sleep and the General Behavior of Infants and Parents during the Closure of Schools as a Result of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Comparison with 2019 Data" Children 8, no. 2: 168. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8020168

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