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Article

Effect of Linear and Nonlinear Pedagogy Physical Education Interventions on Children’s Physical Activity: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (SAMPLE-PE)

1
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L2 2QP, UK
2
Centre of Sport, Exercise and Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK
3
Department of Pedagogical Assessment and Potential Development, Institute of Educational Sciences, University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Children 2021, 8(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010049
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 8 January 2021 / Accepted: 13 January 2021 / Published: 15 January 2021
Background: School-based interventions are a key opportunity to improve children’s physical activity (PA); however, there is lack of evidence about how pedagogical approaches to motor learning in physical education (PE) might affect PA in children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess how different pedagogical approaches in PE might affect children’s PA. Methods: Participants (n = 360, 5–6 years) from 12 primary schools within the SAMPLE-PE randomized controlled trial were randomly allocated to either Linear Pedagogy (LP: n = 3) or Nonlinear Pedagogy (NP: n = 3) interventions, where schools received a 15-week PE intervention delivered by trained coaches, or to a control group (n = 6), where schools followed usual practice. ActiGraph GT9X accelerometers were used to assess PA metrics (moderate-to-vigorous PA, mean raw acceleration and lowest acceleration over the most active hour and half hour) over whole and segmented weeks at baseline, immediately post-intervention and 6 months follow-up. Intention to treat analysis employing multilevel modelling was used to assess intervention effects. Results: LP and NP interventions did not significantly affect children’s PA levels compared to the control group. Conclusion: PE interventions based on LP and NP alone might not be effective in improving habitual PA in children. View Full-Text
Keywords: teaching; curriculum; primary school; accelerometers; movement competence teaching; curriculum; primary school; accelerometers; movement competence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Crotti, M.; Rudd, J.R.; Roberts, S.; Boddy, L.M.; Fitton Davies, K.; O’Callaghan, L.; Utesch, T.; Foweather, L. Effect of Linear and Nonlinear Pedagogy Physical Education Interventions on Children’s Physical Activity: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (SAMPLE-PE). Children 2021, 8, 49. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010049

AMA Style

Crotti M, Rudd JR, Roberts S, Boddy LM, Fitton Davies K, O’Callaghan L, Utesch T, Foweather L. Effect of Linear and Nonlinear Pedagogy Physical Education Interventions on Children’s Physical Activity: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (SAMPLE-PE). Children. 2021; 8(1):49. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010049

Chicago/Turabian Style

Crotti, Matteo, James R. Rudd, Simon Roberts, Lynne M. Boddy, Katie Fitton Davies, Laura O’Callaghan, Till Utesch, and Lawrence Foweather. 2021. "Effect of Linear and Nonlinear Pedagogy Physical Education Interventions on Children’s Physical Activity: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (SAMPLE-PE)" Children 8, no. 1: 49. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010049

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