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Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 53;

Artificially Expanded Genetic Information Systems for New Aptamer Technologies

Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Alachua, FL 32615, USA
Firebird Biomolecular Sciences, LLC, Alachua, FL 32615, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 6 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Aptamers for Biomedical Applications)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2231 KB, uploaded 9 May 2018]   |  


Directed evolution was first applied to diverse libraries of DNA and RNA molecules a quarter century ago in the hope of gaining technology that would allow the creation of receptors, ligands, and catalysts on demand. Despite isolated successes, the outputs of this technology have been somewhat disappointing, perhaps because the four building blocks of standard DNA and RNA have too little functionality to have versatile binding properties, and offer too little information density to fold unambiguously. This review covers the recent literature that seeks to create an improved platform to support laboratory Darwinism, one based on an artificially expanded genetic information system (AEGIS) that adds independently replicating nucleotide “letters” to the evolving “alphabet”. View Full-Text
Keywords: expanded alphabet; AEGIS; aptamers; in vitro selection expanded alphabet; AEGIS; aptamers; in vitro selection

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Biondi, E.; Benner, S.A. Artificially Expanded Genetic Information Systems for New Aptamer Technologies. Biomedicines 2018, 6, 53.

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