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Engineered Aptamers to Probe Molecular Interactions on the Cell Surface
Open AccessReview

Artificially Expanded Genetic Information Systems for New Aptamer Technologies

by 1,2,* and 1,2
1
Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Alachua, FL 32615, USA
2
Firebird Biomolecular Sciences, LLC, Alachua, FL 32615, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020053
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 6 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Aptamers for Biomedical Applications)
Directed evolution was first applied to diverse libraries of DNA and RNA molecules a quarter century ago in the hope of gaining technology that would allow the creation of receptors, ligands, and catalysts on demand. Despite isolated successes, the outputs of this technology have been somewhat disappointing, perhaps because the four building blocks of standard DNA and RNA have too little functionality to have versatile binding properties, and offer too little information density to fold unambiguously. This review covers the recent literature that seeks to create an improved platform to support laboratory Darwinism, one based on an artificially expanded genetic information system (AEGIS) that adds independently replicating nucleotide “letters” to the evolving “alphabet”. View Full-Text
Keywords: expanded alphabet; AEGIS; aptamers; in vitro selection expanded alphabet; AEGIS; aptamers; in vitro selection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Biondi, E.; Benner, S.A. Artificially Expanded Genetic Information Systems for New Aptamer Technologies. Biomedicines 2018, 6, 53. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020053

AMA Style

Biondi E, Benner SA. Artificially Expanded Genetic Information Systems for New Aptamer Technologies. Biomedicines. 2018; 6(2):53. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020053

Chicago/Turabian Style

Biondi, Elisa; Benner, Steven A. 2018. "Artificially Expanded Genetic Information Systems for New Aptamer Technologies" Biomedicines 6, no. 2: 53. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020053

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