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Review

Microneedle Arrays for Sampling and Sensing Skin Interstitial Fluid

1
Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Brisbane QLD 4111, Australia
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gas and Petroleum Faculty, Yasouj University, Yasuj 75918-74831, Iran
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Núria Serrano
Chemosensors 2021, 9(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9040083
Received: 29 March 2021 / Revised: 14 April 2021 / Accepted: 15 April 2021 / Published: 16 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Methods, Instrumentation and Miniaturization)
Dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) is a novel source of biomarkers that can be considered as an alternative to blood sampling for disease diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless, in vivo extraction and analysis of ISF are challenging. On the other hand, microneedle (MN) technology can address most of the challenges associated with dermal ISF extraction and is well suited for long-term, continuous ISF monitoring as well as in situ detection. In this review, we first briefly summarise the different dermal ISF collection methods and compare them with MN methods. Next, we elaborate on the design considerations and biocompatibility of MNs. Subsequently, the fabrication technologies of various MNs used for dermal ISF extraction, including solid MNs, hollow MNs, porous MNs, and hydrogel MNs, are thoroughly explained. In addition, different sensing mechanisms of ISF detection are discussed in detail. Subsequently, we identify the challenges and propose the possible solutions associated with ISF extraction. A detailed investigation is provided for the transport and sampling mechanism of ISF in vivo. Also, the current in vitro skin model integrated with the MN arrays is discussed. Finally, future directions to develop a point-of-care (POC) device to sample ISF are proposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: microneedle; microneedle array; interstitial fluid; bio sensing; wearable system; ISF sampling microneedle; microneedle array; interstitial fluid; bio sensing; wearable system; ISF sampling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kashaninejad, N.; Munaz, A.; Moghadas, H.; Yadav, S.; Umer, M.; Nguyen, N.-T. Microneedle Arrays for Sampling and Sensing Skin Interstitial Fluid. Chemosensors 2021, 9, 83. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9040083

AMA Style

Kashaninejad N, Munaz A, Moghadas H, Yadav S, Umer M, Nguyen N-T. Microneedle Arrays for Sampling and Sensing Skin Interstitial Fluid. Chemosensors. 2021; 9(4):83. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9040083

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kashaninejad, Navid, Ahmed Munaz, Hajar Moghadas, Sharda Yadav, Muhammad Umer, and Nam-Trung Nguyen. 2021. "Microneedle Arrays for Sampling and Sensing Skin Interstitial Fluid" Chemosensors 9, no. 4: 83. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9040083

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