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Proteomes, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2015) , Pages 328-537

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Open AccessArticle
P40 and P90 from Mpn142 are Targets of Multiple Processing Events on the Surface of Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Proteomes 2015, 3(4), 512-537; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes3040512
Received: 20 September 2015 / Revised: 2 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2138 | PDF Full-text (1895 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a significant cause of community acquired pneumonia globally. Despite having a genome less than 1 Mb in size, M. pneumoniae presents a structurally sophisticated attachment organelle that (i) provides cell polarity, (ii) directs adherence to receptors presented on respiratory epithelium, [...] Read more.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a significant cause of community acquired pneumonia globally. Despite having a genome less than 1 Mb in size, M. pneumoniae presents a structurally sophisticated attachment organelle that (i) provides cell polarity, (ii) directs adherence to receptors presented on respiratory epithelium, and (iii) plays a major role in cell motility. The major adhesins, P1 (Mpn141) and P30 (Mpn453), are localised to the tip of the attachment organelle by the surface accessible cleavage fragments P90 and P40 derived from Mpn142. Two events play a defining role in the formation of P90 and P40; removal of a leader peptide at position 26 (23SLA↓NTY28) during secretion to the cell surface and cleavage at amino acid 455 (452GPL↓RAG457) generating P40 and P90. Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of tryptic peptides generated by digesting size-fractionated cell lysates of M. pneumoniae identified 15 cleavage fragments of Mpn142 ranging in mass from 9–84 kDa. Further evidence for the existence of cleavage fragments of Mpn142 was generated by mapping tryptic peptides to proteins recovered from size fractionated eluents from affinity columns loaded with heparin, fibronectin, fetuin, actin, plasminogen and A549 surface proteins as bait. To define the sites of cleavage in Mpn142, neo-N-termini in cell lysates of M. pneumoniae were dimethyl-labelled and characterised by LC-MS/MS. Our data suggests that Mpn142 is cleaved to generate adhesins that are auxiliary to P1 and P30. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Proteomics)
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Open AccessReview
Proteomics in the Study of Bacterial Keratitis
Proteomes 2015, 3(4), 496-511; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes3040496
Received: 5 August 2015 / Revised: 13 November 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 14 December 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1562 | PDF Full-text (766 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial keratitis is a serious ocular infection that can cause severe visual loss if treatment is not initiated at an early stage. It is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Serratia species. Depending on the invading organism, bacterial [...] Read more.
Bacterial keratitis is a serious ocular infection that can cause severe visual loss if treatment is not initiated at an early stage. It is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Serratia species. Depending on the invading organism, bacterial keratitis can progress rapidly, leading to corneal destruction and potential blindness. Common risk factors for bacterial keratitis include contact lens wear, ocular trauma, ocular surface disease, ocular surgery, lid deformity, chronic use of topical steroids, contaminated ocular medications or solutions, and systemic immunosuppression. The pathogenesis of bacterial keratitis, which depends on the bacterium-host interaction and the virulence of the invading bacterium, is complicated and not completely understood. This review highlights some of the proteomic technologies that have been used to identify virulence factors and the host response to infections of bacterial keratitis in order to understand the disease process and develop improved methods of diagnosis and treatment. Although work in this field is not abundant, proteomic technologies have provided valuable information toward our current knowledge of bacterial keratitis. More studies using global proteomic approaches are warranted because it is an important tool to identify novel targets for intervention and prevention of corneal damage caused by these virulent microorganisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Proteomics)
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Open AccessReview
Challenges and Strategies for Proteome Analysis of the Interaction of Human Pathogenic Fungi with Host Immune Cells
Proteomes 2015, 3(4), 467-495; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes3040467
Received: 9 September 2015 / Revised: 23 November 2015 / Accepted: 8 December 2015 / Published: 14 December 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2211 | PDF Full-text (1694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Opportunistic human pathogenic fungi including the saprotrophic mold Aspergillus fumigatus and the human commensal Candida albicans can cause severe fungal infections in immunocompromised or critically ill patients. The first line of defense against opportunistic fungal pathogens is the innate immune system. Phagocytes such [...] Read more.
Opportunistic human pathogenic fungi including the saprotrophic mold Aspergillus fumigatus and the human commensal Candida albicans can cause severe fungal infections in immunocompromised or critically ill patients. The first line of defense against opportunistic fungal pathogens is the innate immune system. Phagocytes such as macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells are an important pillar of the innate immune response and have evolved versatile defense strategies against microbial pathogens. On the other hand, human-pathogenic fungi have sophisticated virulence strategies to counteract the innate immune defense. In this context, proteomic approaches can provide deeper insights into the molecular mechanisms of the interaction of host immune cells with fungal pathogens. This is crucial for the identification of both diagnostic biomarkers for fungal infections and therapeutic targets. Studying host-fungal interactions at the protein level is a challenging endeavor, yet there are few studies that have been undertaken. This review draws attention to proteomic techniques and their application to fungal pathogens and to challenges, difficulties, and limitations that may arise in the course of simultaneous dual proteome analysis of host immune cells interacting with diverse morphotypes of fungal pathogens. On this basis, we discuss strategies to overcome these multifaceted experimental and analytical challenges including the viability of immune cells during co-cultivation, the increased and heterogeneous protein complexity of the host proteome dynamically interacting with the fungal proteome, and the demands on normalization strategies in terms of relative quantitative proteome analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Proteomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Bead Based Proteome Enrichment Enhances Features of the Protein Elution Plate (PEP) for Functional Proteomic Profiling
Proteomes 2015, 3(4), 454-466; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes3040454
Received: 8 October 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1776 | PDF Full-text (5096 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel functional proteomics technology called PEP(Protein Elution Plate) was developed to separate complex proteomes from natural sources and analyze protein functions systematically. The technology takes advantage of the powerful resolution of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D Gels). The modification of electrophoretic conditions in [...] Read more.
A novel functional proteomics technology called PEP(Protein Elution Plate) was developed to separate complex proteomes from natural sources and analyze protein functions systematically. The technology takes advantage of the powerful resolution of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D Gels). The modification of electrophoretic conditions in combination with a high-resolution protein elution plate supports the recovery of functionally active proteins. As 2DE(2-Dimensional Electrophoresis) resolution can be limited by protein load, we investigated the use of bead based enrichment technologies, called AlbuVoid™ and KinaSorb™ to determine their effect on the proteomic features which can be generated from the PEP platform. Using a variety of substrates and enzyme activity assays, we report on the benefits of combining bead based enrichment to improve the signal report and the features generated for Hexokinase, Protein Kinase, Protease, and Alkaline Phosphatase activities. As a result, the PEP technology allows systematic analysis of large enzyme families and can build a comprehensive picture of protein function from a complex proteome, providing biological insights that could otherwise not be observed if only protein abundances were analyzed. Full article
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Open AccessDiscussion
Proteomics Is Analytical Chemistry: Fitness-for-Purpose in the Application of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Analyses
Proteomes 2015, 3(4), 440-453; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes3040440
Received: 23 October 2015 / Revised: 21 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 3 December 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1911 | PDF Full-text (1194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Molecular mechanisms underlying health and disease function at least in part based on the flexibility and fine-tuning afforded by protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. The ability to effectively and consistently resolve these protein species or proteoforms, as well as assess quantitative changes is [...] Read more.
Molecular mechanisms underlying health and disease function at least in part based on the flexibility and fine-tuning afforded by protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. The ability to effectively and consistently resolve these protein species or proteoforms, as well as assess quantitative changes is therefore central to proteomic analyses. Here we discuss the pros and cons of currently available and developing analytical techniques from the perspective of the full spectrum of available tools and their current applications, emphasizing the concept of fitness-for-purpose in experimental design based on consideration of sample size and complexity; this necessarily also addresses analytical reproducibility and its variance. Data quality is considered the primary criterion, and we thus emphasize that the standards of Analytical Chemistry must apply throughout any proteomic analysis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Microbial Metalloproteomics
Proteomes 2015, 3(4), 424-439; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes3040424
Received: 1 September 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 23 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1668 | PDF Full-text (1633 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metalloproteomics is a rapidly developing field of science that involves the comprehensive analysis of all metal-containing or metal-binding proteins in a biological sample. The purpose of this review is to offer a comprehensive overview of the research involving approaches that can be categorized [...] Read more.
Metalloproteomics is a rapidly developing field of science that involves the comprehensive analysis of all metal-containing or metal-binding proteins in a biological sample. The purpose of this review is to offer a comprehensive overview of the research involving approaches that can be categorized as inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-MS based methods, X-ray absorption/fluorescence, radionuclide based methods and bioinformatics. Important discoveries in microbial proteomics will be reviewed, as well as the outlook to new emerging approaches and research areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Proteomics)
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Open AccessArticle
A Proteomic Study of Clavibacter Michiganensis Subsp. Michiganensis Culture Supernatants
Proteomes 2015, 3(4), 411-423; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes3040411
Received: 14 August 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 10 November 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1989 | PDF Full-text (1188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Clavibacter michiganensis, subsp. michiganensis is a Gram-positive plant pathogen infecting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Despite a considerable economic importance due to significant losses of infected plants and fruits, knowledge about virulence factors of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and host-pathogen interactions on [...] Read more.
Clavibacter michiganensis, subsp. michiganensis is a Gram-positive plant pathogen infecting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Despite a considerable economic importance due to significant losses of infected plants and fruits, knowledge about virulence factors of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and host-pathogen interactions on a molecular level are rather limited. In the study presented here, the proteome of culture supernatants from C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis NCPPB382 was analyzed. In total, 1872 proteins were identified in M9 and 1766 proteins in xylem mimicking medium. Filtration of supernatants before protein precipitation reduced these to 1276 proteins in M9 and 976 proteins in the xylem mimicking medium culture filtrate. The results obtained indicate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis reacts to a sucrose- and glucose-depleted medium similar to the xylem sap by utilizing amino acids and host cell polymers as well as their degradation products, mainly peptides, amino acids and various C5 and C6 sugars. Interestingly, the bacterium expresses the previously described virulence factors Pat-1 and CelA not exclusively after host cell contact in planta but already in M9 minimal and xylem mimicking medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Proteomics)
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Open AccessReview
Fluorescent Reporters and Biosensors for Probing the Dynamic Behavior of Protein Kinases
Proteomes 2015, 3(4), 369-410; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes3040369
Received: 17 July 2015 / Revised: 30 September 2015 / Accepted: 23 October 2015 / Published: 4 November 2015
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2324 | PDF Full-text (2486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Probing the dynamic activities of protein kinases in real-time in living cells constitutes a major challenge that requires specific and sensitive tools tailored to meet the particular demands associated with cellular imaging. The development of genetically-encoded and synthetic fluorescent biosensors has provided means [...] Read more.
Probing the dynamic activities of protein kinases in real-time in living cells constitutes a major challenge that requires specific and sensitive tools tailored to meet the particular demands associated with cellular imaging. The development of genetically-encoded and synthetic fluorescent biosensors has provided means of monitoring protein kinase activities in a non-invasive fashion in their native cellular environment with high spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we review existing technologies to probe different dynamic features of protein kinases and discuss limitations where new developments are required to implement more performant tools, in particular with respect to infrared and near-infrared fluorescent probes and strategies which enable improved signal-to-noise ratio and controlled activation of probes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probing the Dynamic Properties of the Kinome)
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Open AccessArticle
The Cytosolic Oligosaccharide-Degrading Proteome of Butyrivibrio Proteoclasticus
Proteomes 2015, 3(4), 347-368; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes3040347
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 19 October 2015 / Published: 27 October 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1642 | PDF Full-text (1751 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The growth and productivity of ruminants depends on a complex microbial community found in their fore-stomach (rumen), which is able to breakdown plant polysaccharides and ferment the released sugars. Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus B316T is a Gram-positive polysaccharide-degrading, butyrate-producing bacterium that is present at high [...] Read more.
The growth and productivity of ruminants depends on a complex microbial community found in their fore-stomach (rumen), which is able to breakdown plant polysaccharides and ferment the released sugars. Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus B316T is a Gram-positive polysaccharide-degrading, butyrate-producing bacterium that is present at high numbers in the rumen of animals consuming pasture or grass silage based diets. B316T is one of a small number of rumen fibrolytic microbes capable of efficiently degrading and utilizing xylan, as well as being capable of utilizing arabinose, xylose, pectin and starch. We have therefore carried out a proteomic analysis of B316T to identify intracellular enzymes that are implicated in the metabolism of internalized xylan. Three hundred and ninety four proteins were identified including enzymes that have potential to metabolize assimilated products of extracellular xylan digestion. Identified enzymes included arabinosidases, esterases, an endoxylanase, and β-xylosidase. The presence of intracellular debranching enzymes indicated that some hemicellulosic side-chains may not be removed until oligosaccharides liberated by extracellular digestion have been assimilated by the cells. The results support a model of extracellular digestion of hemicellulose to oligosaccharides that are then transported to the cytoplasm for further digestion by intracellular enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Proteomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Mitochondrial Proteomics of Antimony and Miltefosine Resistant Leishmania infantum
Proteomes 2015, 3(4), 328-346; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes3040328
Received: 18 August 2015 / Revised: 7 October 2015 / Accepted: 12 October 2015 / Published: 21 October 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1479 | PDF Full-text (2008 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Antimony (SbIII) and miltefosine (MIL) are important drugs for the treatment of Leishmania parasite infections. The mitochondrion is likely to play a central role in SbIII and MIL induced cell death in this parasite. Enriched mitochondrial samples from Leishmania promastigotes selected step by [...] Read more.
Antimony (SbIII) and miltefosine (MIL) are important drugs for the treatment of Leishmania parasite infections. The mitochondrion is likely to play a central role in SbIII and MIL induced cell death in this parasite. Enriched mitochondrial samples from Leishmania promastigotes selected step by step for in vitro resistance to SbIII and MIL were subjected to differential proteomic analysis. A shared decrease in both mutants in the levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase was observed, as well as a differential abundance in two calcium-binding proteins and the unique dynamin-1-like protein of the parasite. Both mutants presented a shared increase in the succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase and the abundance of numerous hypothetical proteins was also altered in both mutants. In general, the proteomic changes observed in the MIL mutant were less pronounced than in the SbIII mutant, probably due to the early appearance of a mutation in the miltefosine transporter abrogating the need for a strong mitochondrial adaptation. This study is the first analysis of the Leishmania mitochondrial proteome and offers powerful insights into the adaptations to this organelle during SbIII and MIL drug resistance. Full article
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