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Open AccessArticle

The Environmental Consequences of Growth: Empirical Evidence from the Republic of Kazakhstan

1
College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2
Department of Economics, School of Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Economies 2018, 6(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies6010019
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollution and Economic Development)
The main objective of this paper is to examine the effect growth has on CO2 emissions in Kazakhstan, controlling for energy consumption, in the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) cointegration framework. We find that the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis seems to hold for Kazakhstan; this effect at a low level of income increases CO2 but at a high level decreases it. We also find that energy consumption increases CO2 emissions. View Full-Text
Keywords: ARDL; CO2 emissions; environment; growth; Kazakhstan ARDL; CO2 emissions; environment; growth; Kazakhstan
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Akbota, A.; Baek, J. The Environmental Consequences of Growth: Empirical Evidence from the Republic of Kazakhstan. Economies 2018, 6, 19.

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