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Article

Response of Horticultural Soil Microbiota to Different Fertilization Practices

1
Department of Genetics, Physical Anthropology and Animal Physiology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia, Spain
2
IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48009 Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain
3
Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia, Spain
4
Department of Pediatrics and Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(11), 1501; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111501
Received: 28 September 2020 / Revised: 27 October 2020 / Accepted: 29 October 2020 / Published: 6 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Quality Assessed for Viti- and Horticulture)
Environmentally friendly agricultural production necessitates manipulation of microbe–plant interactions, requiring a better understanding of how farming practices influence soil microbiota. We studied the effect of conventional and organic treatment on soil bacterial richness, composition, and predicted functional potential. 16S rRNA sequencing was applied to soils from adjacent plots receiving either a synthetic or organic fertilizer, where two crops were grown within treatment, homogenizing for differences in soil properties, crop, and climate. Conventional fertilizer was associated with a decrease in soil pH, an accumulation of Ag, Mn, As, Fe, Co, Cd, and Ni; and an enrichment of ammonia oxidizers and xenobiotic compound degraders (e.g., Candidatus Nitrososphaera, Nitrospira, Bacillus, Pseudomonas). Soils receiving organic fertilization were enriched in Ti (crop biostimulant), N, and C cycling bacteria (denitrifiers, e.g., Azoarcus, Anaerolinea; methylotrophs, e.g., Methylocaldum, Methanosarcina), and disease-suppression (e.g., Myxococcales). Some predicted functions, such as glutathione metabolism, were slightly, but significantly enriched after a one-time manure application, suggesting the enhancement of sulfur regulation, nitrogen-fixing, and defense of environmental stressors. The study highlights that even a single application of organic fertilization is enough to originate a rapid shift in soil prokaryotes, responding to the differential substrate availability by promoting soil health, similar to recurrent applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: farming system; 16S rRNA; soil prokaryotes; functional prediction farming system; 16S rRNA; soil prokaryotes; functional prediction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zarraonaindia, I.; Martínez-Goñi, X.S.; Liñero, O.; Muñoz-Colmenero, M.; Aguirre, M.; Abad, D.; Baroja-Careaga, I.; Diego, A.d.; Gilbert, J.A.; Estonba, A. Response of Horticultural Soil Microbiota to Different Fertilization Practices. Plants 2020, 9, 1501. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111501

AMA Style

Zarraonaindia I, Martínez-Goñi XS, Liñero O, Muñoz-Colmenero M, Aguirre M, Abad D, Baroja-Careaga I, Diego Ad, Gilbert JA, Estonba A. Response of Horticultural Soil Microbiota to Different Fertilization Practices. Plants. 2020; 9(11):1501. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111501

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zarraonaindia, Iratxe, Xabier S. Martínez-Goñi, Olaia Liñero, Marta Muñoz-Colmenero, Mikel Aguirre, David Abad, Igor Baroja-Careaga, Alberto d. Diego, Jack A. Gilbert, and Andone Estonba. 2020. "Response of Horticultural Soil Microbiota to Different Fertilization Practices" Plants 9, no. 11: 1501. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111501

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