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Open AccessArticle

10,000-Times Diluted Doses of ACCase-Inhibiting Herbicides Can Permanently Change the Metabolomic Fingerprint of Susceptible Avena fatua L. Plants

1
Departamento de Parasitología Agrícola, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Texcoco 56230, Mexico
2
Laboratorio de Ecología y Evolución Molecular, Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigación para el Desarrollo Integral Regional (CIIDIR) del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Michoacán, Jiquilpan 59510, Mexico
3
Laboratorio de Genética Ecológica y Evolución, Departamento de Ecología Evolutiva, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
4
Cátedras CONACyT, Ciudad de México 04500, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Plants 2019, 8(10), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8100368
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 12 September 2019 / Accepted: 20 September 2019 / Published: 24 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbicide Resistance in Plants)
Intentional use of low dosage of herbicides has been considered the cause of non-target resistance in weeds. However, herbicide drift could be a source of low dosage that could be detected by weeds and change their metabolism. Furthermore, the minimum dose that a plant can detect in the environment is unknown, and it is unclear whether low doses could modify the response of weeds when they are first exposed to herbicides (priming effects). In this study, we determined the metabolomic fingerprinting using GC-MS of susceptible Avena fatua L. plants exposed to a gradient of doses (1, 0.1, 0.001, 0.0001, and 0x) relative to the recommended dose of clodinafop-propargyl. Additionally, we evaluated the primed plants when they received a second herbicide application. The results showed that even a 10,000-fold dilution of the recommended dose could induce a significant change in the plants’ metabolism and that this change is permanent over the biological cycle. There was no evidence that priming increased its resistance level. However, hormesis increased biomass accumulation and survival in A. fatua plants. Better application methods which prevent herbicide drift should be developed in order to avoid contact with weeds that grow around the crop fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-target metabolomics; GC-MS; non-target site resistance; priming; hormesis non-target metabolomics; GC-MS; non-target site resistance; priming; hormesis
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Tafoya-Razo, J.A.; Oregel-Zamudio, E.; Velázquez-Márquez, S.; Torres-García, J.R. 10,000-Times Diluted Doses of ACCase-Inhibiting Herbicides Can Permanently Change the Metabolomic Fingerprint of Susceptible Avena fatua L. Plants. Plants 2019, 8, 368.

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