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Plants, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2015) , Pages 1-166

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Open AccessReview
Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress
Plants 2015, 4(1), 112-166; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants4010112
Received: 16 December 2014 / Revised: 5 February 2015 / Accepted: 11 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
Cited by 260 | Viewed by 9642 | PDF Full-text (2459 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic [...] Read more.
This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic), transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i) an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii) an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Walls: Chemical and Metabolic Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of the Abundant Hydroxyproline-Rich Glycoproteins in the Root Walls of Wild-Type Arabidopsis, an ext3 Mutant Line, and Its Phenotypic Revertant
Plants 2015, 4(1), 85-111; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants4010085
Received: 9 November 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2015 / Published: 21 January 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3357 | PDF Full-text (1577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Extensins are members of the cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) superfamily that form covalently cross-linked networks in primary cell walls. A knockout mutation in EXT3 (AT1G21310), the gene coding EXTENSIN 3 (EXT3) in Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta resulted in a lethal phenotype, [...] Read more.
Extensins are members of the cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) superfamily that form covalently cross-linked networks in primary cell walls. A knockout mutation in EXT3 (AT1G21310), the gene coding EXTENSIN 3 (EXT3) in Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta resulted in a lethal phenotype, although about 20% of the knockout plants have an apparently normal phenotype (ANP). In this study the root cell wall HRGP components of wild-type, ANP and the ext3 mutant seedlings were characterized by peptide fractionation of trypsin digested anhydrous hydrogen fluoride deglycosylated wall residues and by sequencing using LC-MS/MS. Several HRGPs, including EXT3, were identified in the wild-type root walls but not in walls of the ANP and lethal mutant. Indeed the ANP walls and walls of mutants displaying the lethal phenotype possessed HRGPs, but the profiles suggest that changes in the amount and perhaps type may account for the corresponding phenotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Walls: Chemical and Metabolic Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Cell Wall Loosening in the Fungus, Phycomyces blakesleeanus
Plants 2015, 4(1), 63-84; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants4010063
Received: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 21 January 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2617 | PDF Full-text (1210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A considerable amount of research has been conducted to determine how cell walls are loosened to produce irreversible wall deformation and expansive growth in plant and algal cells. The same cannot be said about fungal cells. Almost nothing is known about how fungal [...] Read more.
A considerable amount of research has been conducted to determine how cell walls are loosened to produce irreversible wall deformation and expansive growth in plant and algal cells. The same cannot be said about fungal cells. Almost nothing is known about how fungal cells loosen their walls to produce irreversible wall deformation and expansive growth. In this study, anoxia is used to chemically isolate the wall from the protoplasm of the sporangiophores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus. The experimental results provide direct evidence of the existence of chemistry within the fungal wall that is responsible for wall loosening, irreversible wall deformation and elongation growth. In addition, constant-tension extension experiments are conducted on frozen-thawed sporangiophore walls to obtain insight into the wall chemistry and wall loosening mechanism. It is found that a decrease in pH to 4.6 produces creep extension in the frozen-thawed sporangiophore wall that is similar, but not identical, to that found in frozen-thawed higher plant cell walls. Experimental results from frozen-thawed and boiled sporangiophore walls suggest that protein activity may be involved in the creep extension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Walls: Chemical and Metabolic Analysis)
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Open AccessReview
The Utilization of Plant Facilities on the International Space Station—The Composition, Growth, and Development of Plant Cell Walls under Microgravity Conditions
Plants 2015, 4(1), 44-62; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants4010044
Received: 6 October 2014 / Revised: 27 November 2014 / Accepted: 15 December 2014 / Published: 20 January 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3772 | PDF Full-text (1010 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the preparation for missions to Mars, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and development of living plants under microgravity (micro-g) conditions is essential. Focus has centered on the g-effects on rigidity, including mechanisms of signal perception, transduction, and response in gravity [...] Read more.
In the preparation for missions to Mars, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and development of living plants under microgravity (micro-g) conditions is essential. Focus has centered on the g-effects on rigidity, including mechanisms of signal perception, transduction, and response in gravity resistance. These components of gravity resistance are linked to the evolution and acquisition of responses to various mechanical stresses. An overview is given both on the basic effect of hypergravity as well as of micro-g conditions in the cell wall changes. The review includes plant experiments in the US Space Shuttle and the effect of short space stays (8–14 days) on single cells (plant protoplasts). Regeneration of protoplasts is dependent on cortical microtubules to orient the nascent cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. The space protoplast experiments demonstrated that the regeneration capacity of protoplasts was retarded. Two critical factors are the basis for longer space experiments: a. the effects of gravity on the molecular mechanisms for cell wall development, b. the availability of facilities and hardware for performing cell wall experiments in space and return of RNA/DNA back to the Earth. Linked to these aspects is a description of existing hardware functioning on the International Space Station. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Walls: Chemical and Metabolic Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantification of (1→4)-β-d-Galactans in Compression Wood Using an Immuno-Dot Assay
Plants 2015, 4(1), 29-43; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants4010029
Received: 29 October 2014 / Accepted: 6 January 2015 / Published: 14 January 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2389 | PDF Full-text (822 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Compression wood is a type of reaction wood formed on the underside of softwood stems when they are tilted from the vertical and on the underside of branches. Its quantification is still a matter of some scientific debate. We developed a new technique [...] Read more.
Compression wood is a type of reaction wood formed on the underside of softwood stems when they are tilted from the vertical and on the underside of branches. Its quantification is still a matter of some scientific debate. We developed a new technique that has the potential to do this based on the higher proportions of (1→4)-β-d-galactans that occur in tracheid cell walls of compression wood. Wood was milled, partially delignified, and the non-cellulosic polysaccharides, including the (1→4)-β-d-galactans, extracted with 6 M sodium hydroxide. After neutralizing, the solution was serially diluted, and the (1→4)-β-d-galactans determined by an immuno-dot assay using the monoclonal antibody LM5, which specifically recognizes this polysaccharide. Spots were quantified using a dilution series of a commercially available (1→4)-β-d-galactan from lupin seeds. Using this method, compression and opposite woods from radiata pine (Pinus radiata) were easily distinguished based on the amounts of (1→4)-β-d-galactans extracted. The non-cellulosic polysaccharides in the milled wood samples were also hydrolysed using 2 M trifluoroacetic acid followed by the separation and quantification of the released neutral monosaccharides by high performance anion exchange chromatography. This confirmed that the compression woods contained higher proportions of galactose-containing polysaccharides than the opposite woods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Walls: Chemical and Metabolic Analysis)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Plants in 2014
Plants 2015, 4(1), 27-28; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants4010027
Received: 8 January 2015 / Accepted: 8 January 2015 / Published: 8 January 2015
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Abstract
The editors of Plants would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2014:[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Accumulation of Phosphorus-Containing Compounds in Developing Seeds of Low-Phytate Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Mutants
Plants 2015, 4(1), 1-26; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants4010001
Received: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 17 December 2014 / Published: 26 December 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3221 | PDF Full-text (1598 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low phytic acid (lpa) crops are low in phytic acid and high in inorganic phosphorus (Pi). In this study, two lpa pea genotypes, 1-150-81, 1-2347-144, and their progenitor CDC Bronco were grown in field trials for two years. The [...] Read more.
Low phytic acid (lpa) crops are low in phytic acid and high in inorganic phosphorus (Pi). In this study, two lpa pea genotypes, 1-150-81, 1-2347-144, and their progenitor CDC Bronco were grown in field trials for two years. The lpa genotypes were lower in IP6 and higher in Pi when compared to CDC Bronco. The total P concentration was similar in lpa genotypes and CDC Bronco throughout the seed development. The action of myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) (EC 5.5.1.4) is the first and rate-limiting step in the phytic acid biosynthesis pathway. Aiming at understanding the genetic basis of the lpa mutation in the pea, a 1530 bp open reading frame of MIPS was amplified from CDC Bronco and the lpa genotypes. Sequencing results showed no difference in coding sequence in MIPS between CDC Bronco and lpa genotypes. Transcription levels of MIPS were relatively lower at 49 days after flowering (DAF) than at 14 DAF for CDC Bronco and lpa lines. This study elucidated the rate and accumulation of phosphorus compounds in lpa genotypes. The data also demonstrated that mutation in MIPS was not responsible for the lpa trait in these pea lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytic Acid Pathway and Breeding in Plants)
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Plants EISSN 2223-7747 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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