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Article

Potassium and Humic Acid Synergistically Increase Salt Tolerance and Nutrient Uptake in Contrasting Wheat Genotypes through Ionic Homeostasis and Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes

1
Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, Vehari 61100, Pakistan
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Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Institute of Environmental Sciences & Engineering, School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
4
The UWA Institute of Agriculture, UWA School of Agriculture and Environment, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6001, Australia
5
Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Xianyang 712100, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luis Alonso Valdez-Aguilar and Andrew D. Cartmill
Plants 2022, 11(3), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030263
Received: 15 November 2021 / Revised: 12 January 2022 / Accepted: 15 January 2022 / Published: 19 January 2022
Salinity limits the growth and nutrient uptake in crop species. Studies show that both potassium (K) and humic acid (HA) improved plant tolerance to salinity. However, the interactive effect of K and HA on plant tolerance to salinity stress remains unknown. This pot study examined the effect of application of K (0, 5 or 10 mM) and HA (0 or 2 g kg−1), alone or in combination, on the growth and physiology under salinity (100 mM NaCl) in two wheat genotypes (SARC 1, salt tolerant; and SARC 5, salt sensitive). The results revealed that salt stress reduced shoot biomass by 35% and 49% in SARC 1 and SARC 5, respectively. Salinity induced overproduction of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation in both genotypes, but the decline in pigments and stomatal conductance was more profound in SARC 5 than in SARC 1. Combined application of 10 mM K and HA was most effective in alleviating salt stress with improved plant biomass by 47% and 43% in SARC 1 and SARC 5, respectively. Combined application of 10 mM K and HA mitigated salt and induced oxidative stress with the activities of APX, CAT, POD and SOD increased by up to 2.8 folds in SARC 1, and by upto 2.5 folds in SARC 5, respectively. Root and shoot Na contents were increased, while K, Fe and Zn contents were decreased under saline conditions. HA combined with K decreased Na and increased K, Fe and Zn contents in both genotypes. Combined application of 10 mM K and HA was more promising for increasing wheat salt tolerance and nutrient uptake and genotype SARC 1 performed better than SARC 5 for cultivation on saline soils. View Full-Text
Keywords: salinity; potassium; humic acid; ROS; antioxidants salinity; potassium; humic acid; ROS; antioxidants
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abbas, G.; Rehman, S.; Siddiqui, M.H.; Ali, H.M.; Farooq, M.A.; Chen, Y. Potassium and Humic Acid Synergistically Increase Salt Tolerance and Nutrient Uptake in Contrasting Wheat Genotypes through Ionic Homeostasis and Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes. Plants 2022, 11, 263. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030263

AMA Style

Abbas G, Rehman S, Siddiqui MH, Ali HM, Farooq MA, Chen Y. Potassium and Humic Acid Synergistically Increase Salt Tolerance and Nutrient Uptake in Contrasting Wheat Genotypes through Ionic Homeostasis and Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes. Plants. 2022; 11(3):263. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030263

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abbas, Ghulam, Sadia Rehman, Manzer H. Siddiqui, Hayssam M. Ali, Muhammad Ansar Farooq, and Yinglong Chen. 2022. "Potassium and Humic Acid Synergistically Increase Salt Tolerance and Nutrient Uptake in Contrasting Wheat Genotypes through Ionic Homeostasis and Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes" Plants 11, no. 3: 263. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030263

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