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Review

Biflavonoids: Important Contributions to the Health Benefits of Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.)

1
Department of Food Technology, University North, Trga Dr. Žarka Dolinara 1, 48000 Koprivnica, Croatia
2
Department for Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 33-35, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
3
Department of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jose M. Soriano
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1381; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101381
Received: 22 April 2022 / Revised: 19 May 2022 / Accepted: 20 May 2022 / Published: 23 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyphenols - from Plants to Human Health Volume II)
Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) is one of the most distinctive plants, characterized by excellent resistance to various environmental conditions. It is used as an ornamental plant and is recognized as a medicinal plant in both traditional and Western medicine. Its bioactive potential is associated with the presence of flavonoids and terpene trilactones, but many other compounds may also have synergistic effects. Flavonoid dimers—biflavonoids—are important constituents of ginkgophytopharmaceuticals. Currently, the presence of 13 biflavonoids has been reported in ginkgo, of which amentoflavone, bilobetin, sciadopitysin, ginkgetin and isoginkgetin are the most common. Their role in plants remains unknown, but their bioactivity and potential role in the management of human health are better investigated. In this review, we have provided an overview of the chemistry, diversity and biological factors that influence the presence of biflavonoids in ginkgo, as well as their bioactive and health-related properties. We have focused on their antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities as well as their potential role in the treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. We also highlighted their potential toxicity and pointed out further research directions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ginkgo biloba L.; biflavonoids; ginkgetin; isoginkgetin; bilobetin; sciadopitysin; amentoflavone; bioactive compounds Ginkgo biloba L.; biflavonoids; ginkgetin; isoginkgetin; bilobetin; sciadopitysin; amentoflavone; bioactive compounds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Šamec, D.; Karalija, E.; Dahija, S.; Hassan, S.T.S. Biflavonoids: Important Contributions to the Health Benefits of Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.). Plants 2022, 11, 1381. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101381

AMA Style

Šamec D, Karalija E, Dahija S, Hassan STS. Biflavonoids: Important Contributions to the Health Benefits of Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.). Plants. 2022; 11(10):1381. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101381

Chicago/Turabian Style

Šamec, Dunja, Erna Karalija, Sabina Dahija, and Sherif T. S. Hassan. 2022. "Biflavonoids: Important Contributions to the Health Benefits of Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.)" Plants 11, no. 10: 1381. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101381

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