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Open AccessArticle

24-Epibrassinolide (EBR) Confers Tolerance against NaCl Stress in Soybean Plants by Up-Regulating Antioxidant System, Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle, and Glyoxalase System

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Department of Biology, College of Science and Humanities, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj 11942, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Humanities, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj 11942, Saudi Arabia
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College of Life Science, NorthWest University, Xi’an 710127, China
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Department of Botany, Govt. College for Women, Baramulla-193101, Jammu and Kashmir, India
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University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan
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Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Botany, S.P. College, Srinagar 190001, Jammu and Kashmir, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(11), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9110640
Received: 4 September 2019 / Revised: 14 October 2019 / Accepted: 15 October 2019 / Published: 23 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytohormones)
The present research was performed to assess the effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on salt-stressed soybean plants. Salt stress suppressed growth, biomass yield, gas exchange parameters, pigment content, and chlorophyll fluorescence, but all these parameters were up-regulated by EBR supply. Moreover, salt stress increased hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, and electrolyte leakage. EBR supplementation reduced the accumulation of oxidative stress biomarkers. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the accumulation of proline, glycinebetaine, total phenols, and total flavonoids increased with NaCl stress, but these attributes further increased with EBR supplementation. The activities of enzymes and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants involved in the Asc-Glu cycle also increased with NaCl stress, and further enhancement in these attributes was recorded by EBR supplementation. Salinity elevated the methylglyoxal content, but it was decreased by the EBR supplementation accompanying with up-regulation of the glyoxalase cycle (GlyI and GlyII). Salinity enhanced the Na+ uptake in root and shoot coupled with a decrease in uptake of Ca2+, K+, and P. However, EBR supplementation declined Na+ accumulation and promoted the uptake of the aforementioned nutrients. Overall, EBR supplementation regulated the salt tolerance mechanism in soybean plants by modulating osmolytes, activities of key enzymes, and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants. View Full-Text
Keywords: soybean; NaCl stress; 24-epibrassinolide; growth; antioxidants; Asc-Glu cycle; glyoxalase cycle; mineral uptake soybean; NaCl stress; 24-epibrassinolide; growth; antioxidants; Asc-Glu cycle; glyoxalase cycle; mineral uptake
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Alam, P.; Albalawi, T.H.; Altalayan, F.H.; Bakht, M.A.; Ahanger, M.A.; Raja, V.; Ashraf, M.; Ahmad, P. 24-Epibrassinolide (EBR) Confers Tolerance against NaCl Stress in Soybean Plants by Up-Regulating Antioxidant System, Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle, and Glyoxalase System. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 640.

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