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Alarming Cargo: The Role of Exosomes in Trauma-Induced Inflammation

1
USU Walter Reed Surgery, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
2
Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., Bethesda, MD 20817, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Barbara Canonico
Biomolecules 2021, 11(4), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040522
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 26 March 2021 / Accepted: 29 March 2021 / Published: 31 March 2021
Severe polytraumatic injury initiates a robust immune response. Broad immune dysfunction in patients with such injuries has been well-documented; however, early biomarkers of immune dysfunction post-injury, which are critical for comprehensive intervention and can predict the clinical course of patients, have not been reported. Current circulating markers such as IL-6 and IL-10 are broad, non-specific, and lag behind the clinical course of patients. General blockade of the inflammatory response is detrimental to patients, as a certain degree of regulated inflammation is critical and necessary following trauma. Exosomes, small membrane-bound extracellular vesicles, found in a variety of biofluids, carry within them a complex functional cargo, comprised of coding and non-coding RNAs, proteins, and metabolites. Composition of circulating exosomal cargo is modulated by changes in the intra- and extracellular microenvironment, thereby serving as a homeostasis sensor. With its extensively documented involvement in immune regulation in multiple pathologies, study of exosomal cargo in polytrauma patients can provide critical insights on trauma-specific, temporal immune dysregulation, with tremendous potential to serve as unique biomarkers and therapeutic targets for timely and precise intervention. View Full-Text
Keywords: exosomes; extracellular vesicles; intercellular communication; inflammation; trauma exosomes; extracellular vesicles; intercellular communication; inflammation; trauma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Walsh, S.A.; Hoyt, B.W.; Rowe, C.J.; Dey, D.; Davis, T.A. Alarming Cargo: The Role of Exosomes in Trauma-Induced Inflammation. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 522. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040522

AMA Style

Walsh SA, Hoyt BW, Rowe CJ, Dey D, Davis TA. Alarming Cargo: The Role of Exosomes in Trauma-Induced Inflammation. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(4):522. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040522

Chicago/Turabian Style

Walsh, Sarah A., Benjamin W. Hoyt, Cassie J. Rowe, Devaveena Dey, and Thomas A. Davis 2021. "Alarming Cargo: The Role of Exosomes in Trauma-Induced Inflammation" Biomolecules 11, no. 4: 522. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040522

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