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More Than Meets the Eye: Revisiting the Roles of Heat Shock Factor 4 in Health and Diseases

UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaacob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Jürg Bähler
Biomolecules 2021, 11(4), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040523
Received: 8 March 2021 / Revised: 27 March 2021 / Accepted: 29 March 2021 / Published: 31 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Biomacromolecules)
Cells encounter a myriad of endogenous and exogenous stresses that could perturb cellular physiological processes. Therefore, cells are equipped with several adaptive and stress-response machinery to overcome and survive these insults. One such machinery is the heat shock response (HSR) program that is governed by the heat shock factors (HSFs) family in response towards elevated temperature, free radicals, oxidants, and heavy metals. HSF4 is a member of this HSFs family that could exist in two predominant isoforms, either the transcriptional repressor HSFa or transcriptional activator HSF4b. HSF4 is constitutively active due to the lack of oligomerization negative regulator domain. HSF4 has been demonstrated to play roles in several physiological processes and not only limited to regulating the classical heat shock- or stress-responsive transcriptional programs. In this review, we will revisit and delineate the recent updates on HSF4 molecular properties. We also comprehensively discuss the roles of HSF4 in health and diseases, particularly in lens cell development, cataract formation, and cancer pathogenesis. Finally, we will posit the potential direction of HSF4 future research that could enhance our knowledge on HSF4 molecular networks as well as physiological and pathophysiological functions. View Full-Text
Keywords: heat shock factors; cellular stress; cells development; transcription regulation; cataract; cancer heat shock factors; cellular stress; cells development; transcription regulation; cataract; cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Syafruddin, S.E.; Ling, S.; Low, T.Y.; Mohtar, M.A. More Than Meets the Eye: Revisiting the Roles of Heat Shock Factor 4 in Health and Diseases. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 523. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040523

AMA Style

Syafruddin SE, Ling S, Low TY, Mohtar MA. More Than Meets the Eye: Revisiting the Roles of Heat Shock Factor 4 in Health and Diseases. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(4):523. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040523

Chicago/Turabian Style

Syafruddin, Saiful E., Sheen Ling, Teck Y. Low, and M A. Mohtar 2021. "More Than Meets the Eye: Revisiting the Roles of Heat Shock Factor 4 in Health and Diseases" Biomolecules 11, no. 4: 523. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11040523

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