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TLR2 and TLR4 Surface and Gene Expression in White Blood Cells after Fasting and Oral Glucose, Lipid and Protein Challenges: Influence of Obesity and Sex Hormones

1
Diabetes, Obesity and Human Reproduction Research Group, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal &Universidad de Alcalá &Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria (IRYCIS) & Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), 28034 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Immunology, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(1), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10010111
Received: 1 December 2019 / Revised: 20 December 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2020 / Published: 9 January 2020
We studied if macronutrients of the diet have different effects on leukocyte activation, and if these effects are influenced by sex hormones or obesity. We analyzed leukocyte cell surface and gene expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) during fasting and after macronutrient loads in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and female and male controls. Fasting TLR2 surface expression in neutrophils was higher in men than in women. Obese subjects presented higher TLR2 gene expression than nonobese individuals, particularly in men. In contrast, surface TLR4 expression was lower in men and in obese individuals. Postprandial cell-surface expression decreased similarly after all macronutrient loads. Neutrophil TLR2 decreased only in obese subjects whereas TLR4 showed a greater decrease in nonobese individuals. However, TLR2 gene expression increased after glucose ingestion and decreased during the lipid load, while TLR4 was induced in response to lipids and mostly to glucose. Postprandial TLR gene expression was not influenced by group of subjects or obesity. Both cell-surface and gene postprandial expression inversely correlated with their fasting levels. These responses suggest a transient compensatory response aiming to prevent postprandial inflammation. However, obesity and sex hormones showed opposite influences on surface expression of TLR2 and TLR4, but not on their gene expression, pointing to regulatory posttranscriptional mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: sex hormones; leukocytes; macronutrient loads; obesity; polycystic ovary syndrome; toll-like receptors; postprandial response sex hormones; leukocytes; macronutrient loads; obesity; polycystic ovary syndrome; toll-like receptors; postprandial response
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Martínez-García, M.Á.; Ojeda-Ojeda, M.; Rodríguez-Martín, E.; Insenser, M.; Moncayo, S.; Álvarez-Blasco, F.; Luque-Ramírez, M.; Escobar-Morreale, H.F. TLR2 and TLR4 Surface and Gene Expression in White Blood Cells after Fasting and Oral Glucose, Lipid and Protein Challenges: Influence of Obesity and Sex Hormones. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 111.

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