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Article

Ruellia tuberosa Ethyl Acetate Leaf Extract Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Breast Cancer Cell Line, MCF-7

Biotechnology Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, Kota Kinabalu 88400, Sabah, Malaysia
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Academic Editor: William A. Donaldson
Sci. Pharm. 2022, 90(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm90030044
Received: 29 May 2022 / Revised: 3 July 2022 / Accepted: 8 July 2022 / Published: 25 July 2022
Ruellia tuberosa L. has been previously shown to possess antioxidant and antiproliferative activities on cancer cells but its underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the mode of action underlying this inhibitory effect on MCF-7 using ethyl acetate extract obtained after liquid-liquid partition of methanol crude extract. Antiproliferative effect of R. tuberosa ethyl acetate leaf extract (RTEAL) was evaluated using MTT assay. Its ability to induce apoptosis was assessed by DNA ladder formation, JC-1, Annexin V, and methylene blue staining assays. Perturbation of cell cycle progression was determined using flow cytometry. RTEAL was found to selectively inhibit the proliferation of MCF-7 cells with the IC50 value of 28 µg/mL. Morphological changes such as nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation were observed although DNA laddering was undetected in agarose gel. RTEAL-induced apoptotic pathways by inhibiting the expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 while upregulating pro-apoptotic BAX, caspase 7 and caspase 8. RTEAL also caused cell cycle arrests at the S and G2/M phase and dysregulation of cell cycle regulators. These findings collectively demonstrate that RTEAL extract inhibited cell growth by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, suggesting its therapeutic potential against breast cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ruellia tuberosa; apoptosis; cell cycle; BCL-2 family; caspases; breast cancer Ruellia tuberosa; apoptosis; cell cycle; BCL-2 family; caspases; breast cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lem, F.F.; Cheong, B.E.; Teoh, P.L. Ruellia tuberosa Ethyl Acetate Leaf Extract Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Breast Cancer Cell Line, MCF-7. Sci. Pharm. 2022, 90, 44. https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm90030044

AMA Style

Lem FF, Cheong BE, Teoh PL. Ruellia tuberosa Ethyl Acetate Leaf Extract Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Breast Cancer Cell Line, MCF-7. Scientia Pharmaceutica. 2022; 90(3):44. https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm90030044

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lem, Fui Fui, Bo Eng Cheong, and Peik Lin Teoh. 2022. "Ruellia tuberosa Ethyl Acetate Leaf Extract Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Breast Cancer Cell Line, MCF-7" Scientia Pharmaceutica 90, no. 3: 44. https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm90030044

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