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Scientia Pharmaceutica is published by MDPI from Volume 84 Issue 3 (2016). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Austrian Pharmaceutical Society (Österreichische Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft, ÖPhG).

Sci. Pharm., Volume 82, Issue 3 (September 2014) – 16 articles , Pages 453-708

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Open AccessArticle
Oral Immunization Against Candidiasis Using Lactobacillus casei Displaying Enolase 1 from Candida albicans
Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82(3), 697-708; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1404-07 - 23 Jul 2014
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
Candidiasis is a common fungal infection that is prevalent in immunocompro-mised individuals. In this study, an oral vaccine against Candida albicans was developed by using the molecular display approach. Enolase 1 protein (Eno1p) of C. albicans was expressed on the Lactobacillus casei cell [...] Read more.
Candidiasis is a common fungal infection that is prevalent in immunocompro-mised individuals. In this study, an oral vaccine against Candida albicans was developed by using the molecular display approach. Enolase 1 protein (Eno1p) of C. albicans was expressed on the Lactobacillus casei cell surface by using poly-gamma-glutamic acid synthetase complex A from Bacillus subtilis as an anchoring protein. The Eno1p-displaying L. casei cells were used to immunize mice, which were later challenged with a lethal dose of C. albicans. The data indicated that the vaccine elicited a strong IgG response and increased the survival rate of the vaccinated mice. Furthermore, L. casei acted as a potent adjuvant and induced high antibody titers that were comparable to those induced by strong adjuvants such as the cholera toxin. Overall, the molecular display method can be used to rapidly develop vaccines that can be conveniently administered and require minimal processing. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Preparation, In Vitro Characterization, and In Vivo Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Respirable Porous Microparticles Containing Rifampicin
Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82(3), 665-682; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1307-03 - 23 Jul 2014
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
This study aimed to prepare and evaluate rifampicin microparticles for the lung delivery of rifampicin as respirable powder. The microparticles were prepared using chitosan by the spray-drying method and evaluated for aerodynamic properties and pulmonary drug absorption. To control the drug release, tripoly-phosphate [...] Read more.
This study aimed to prepare and evaluate rifampicin microparticles for the lung delivery of rifampicin as respirable powder. The microparticles were prepared using chitosan by the spray-drying method and evaluated for aerodynamic properties and pulmonary drug absorption. To control the drug release, tripoly-phosphate in different concentrations 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 was employed to get a sustained drug release profile. The microparticles were evaluated for drug loading, % entrapment efficiency, tapped density, morphological characteristics, and in vitro drug release studies. Aerosol properties were determined using the Andersen cascade impactor. Porous microparticles with particle sizes (d0.5) less than 10 μm were obtained. The entrapment of rifampicin in microparticles was up to 72%. In vitro drug release suggested that the crosslinked microparticles showed sustained release for more than 12 hrs. The drug release rate was found to be decreased as the TPP concentration was increased. The microparticles showed a fine particle fraction in the range of 55–63% with mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) values below 3 μm. The in vivo pulmonary absorption of the chitosan microparticles suggested a sustained drug release profile up to 72 hrs with an elimination rate of 0.010 per hr. The studies revealed that the spray-dried porous microparticles have suitable properties to be used as respirable powder in rifampicin delivery to the lungs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Lack of Association between the Serotonin Transporter (5-HTT) and Serotonin Receptor (5-HT2A) Gene Polymorphisms with Smoking Behavior among Malaysian Malays
Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82(3), 631-642; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1406-01 - 18 Jul 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 655
Abstract
An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and a polymorphism (rs6313) in the serotonin 2A receptor gene (5-HT2A) have previously been linked to smoking behavior. The objective of this study was to determine [...] Read more.
An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and a polymorphism (rs6313) in the serotonin 2A receptor gene (5-HT2A) have previously been linked to smoking behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the possible association of the 5-HTTLPR and 5-HT2A gene polymorphisms with smoking behavior within a population of Malaysian male smokers (n=248) and non-smokers (n=248). The 5-HTTLPR genotypes were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were classified as short (S) alleles or long (L) alleles. The 5HT2A genotypes were determined using PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP). No significant differences in the distribution frequencies of the alleles were found between the smokers and the non-smokers for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (χ2 = 0.72, P>0.05) or the 5HT2A polymorphism (χ2 = 0.73, P>0.05). This is the first study conducted on Malaysian Malay males regarding the association of 5-HTTLPR and 5HT2A polymorphisms and smoking behavior. However, the genes were not found to be associated with smoking behavior in our population. Full article
Open AccessReview
Selective Phosphodiesterase 4B Inhibitors: A Review
Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82(3), 453-482; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1404-08 - 10 Jun 2014
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 955
Abstract
Phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) is a member of the phosphodiesterase family of proteins that plays a critical role in regulating intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) by controlling its rate of degradation. It has been demonstrated that this isoform is involved in the [...] Read more.
Phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) is a member of the phosphodiesterase family of proteins that plays a critical role in regulating intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) by controlling its rate of degradation. It has been demonstrated that this isoform is involved in the orchestra of events which includes inflammation, schizophrenia, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, contractility of the myocardium, and psoriatic arthritis. Phospho-diesterase 4B has constituted an interesting target for drug development. In recent years, a number of PDE4B inhibitors have been developed for their use as therapeutic agents. In this review, an up-to-date status of the inhibitors investigated for the inhibition of PDE4B has been given so that this rich source of structural information of presently known PDE4B inhibitors could be helpful in generating a selective and potent inhibitor of PDE4B. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Release Kinetics of Papaverine Hydrochloride from Tablets with Different Excipients
Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82(3), 683-696; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1310-19 - 16 May 2014
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 743
Abstract
The influence of excipients on the disintegration times of tablets and the release of papaverine hydrochloride (PAP) from tablets were studied. Ten different formulations of tablets with PAP were prepared by direct powder compression. Different binders, disintegrants, fillers, and lubricants were used as [...] Read more.
The influence of excipients on the disintegration times of tablets and the release of papaverine hydrochloride (PAP) from tablets were studied. Ten different formulations of tablets with PAP were prepared by direct powder compression. Different binders, disintegrants, fillers, and lubricants were used as excipients. The release of PAP was carried out in the paddle apparatus using 0.1 N HCl as a dissolution medium. The results of the disintegration times of tablets showed that six formulations can be classified as fast dissolving tablets (FDT). FDT formulations contained Avicel PH 101, Avicel PH 102, mannitol, β-lactose, PVP K 10, gelatinized starch (CPharmGel), Prosolv Easy Tab, Prosolv SMCC 90, magnesium stearate, and the addition of disintegrants such as AcDiSol and Kollidon CL. Drug release kinetics were estimated by the zero- and first-order, Higuchi release rate, and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. Two formulations of the tablets containing PVP (K10) (10%), CPharmGel (10% and 25%), and Prosolv Easy Tab (44% and 60%) without the addition of a disintegrant were well-fitted to the kinetics models such as the Higuchi and zero-order, which are suitable for controlled- or sustained-release. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Experimental Design Approach for Impurity Profiling of Valacyclovir-Related Products by RP-HPLC
Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82(3), 617-630; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1403-20 - 05 May 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 919
Abstract
Impurity profiling has become an important phase of pharmaceutical research where both spectroscopic and chromatographic methods find applications. The analytical methodology needs to be very sensitive, specific, and precise which will separate and determine the impurity of interest at the 0.1% level. Current [...] Read more.
Impurity profiling has become an important phase of pharmaceutical research where both spectroscopic and chromatographic methods find applications. The analytical methodology needs to be very sensitive, specific, and precise which will separate and determine the impurity of interest at the 0.1% level. Current research reports a validated RP-HPLC method to detect and separate valacyclovir-related impurities (Imp-E and Imp-G) using the Box-Behnken design approach of response surface methodology. A gradient mobile phase (buffer: acetonitrile as mobile phase A and acetonitrile: methanol as mobile phase B) was used. Linearity was found in the concentration range of 50–150 μg/mL. The mean recovery of impurities was 99.9% and 103.2%, respectively. The %RSD for the peak areas of Imp-E and Imp-G were 0.9 and 0.1, respectively. No blank interferences at the retention times of the impurities suggest the specificity of the method. The LOD values were 0.0024 μg/mL for Imp-E and 0.04 μg/mL for Imp-G and the LOQ values were obtained as 0.0082 μg/mL and 0.136 μg/mL, respectively, for the impurities. The S/N ratios in both cases were within the specification limits. Proper peak shapes and satisfactory resolution with good retention times suggested the suitability of the method for impurity profiling of valacyclovir-related drug substances. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development and Validation of a LC-MS/MS Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Amlodipine and Valsartan in Human Plasma: Application to a Bioequivalence Study
Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82(3), 585-600; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1402-11 - 26 Apr 2014
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
A reliable, simple, and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectro-metric (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated that employs solid-phase extraction for the simultaneous estimation of amlodipine and valsartan in human K3EDTA plasma using amlodipine-d4 and valsartan-d9 as internal standards. Chromatographic separation [...] Read more.
A reliable, simple, and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectro-metric (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated that employs solid-phase extraction for the simultaneous estimation of amlodipine and valsartan in human K3EDTA plasma using amlodipine-d4 and valsartan-d9 as internal standards. Chromatographic separation of amlodipine and valsartan was achieved on the Luna C18 (2)100A (150 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using acetonitrile: 5 mM ammonium formate solution (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in isocratic mode. Quantification was achieved using an electrospray ion interface operating in positive mode, under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) conditions. The assay was found to be linear over the range of 0.302–20.725 ng/mL for amlodipine and 6.062–18060.792 ng/mL for valsartan. The method has shown good reproducibility, as intra- and interday precisions were within 10% and accuracies were within 8% of nominal values for both analytes. The method was successfully applied for the bioequivalence study of amlodipine and valsartan after oral administration of a fixed dose of the combination. Additionally, as required by the current regulatory bodies, incurred sample reanalysis was performed and found to be acceptable. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Zileuton in Human Plasma
Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82(3), 571-584; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1402-19 - 26 Apr 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
A selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the quantification of zileuton in human plasma. Deuterated internal standard (zileuton D4) was used as the internal standard (ISTD). Zileuton was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using methyl [...] Read more.
A selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the quantification of zileuton in human plasma. Deuterated internal standard (zileuton D4) was used as the internal standard (ISTD). Zileuton was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using methyl tert-butyl ether and separated by isocratic elution on a C18 column (100 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm, Discovery C18) with the mobile phase consisting of 1 mM ammonium acetate buffer and methanol in the ratio of 10:90. A flow rate of 1.0 ml/min was used with isocratic elution. Multiple reaction monitoring transitions in positive mode for zileuton and the internal standard were 237.3/161.2 and 241.2/161.1, respectively. The method was validated within the linearity range of 50.5–10,012.7 ng/ml for the bioanalytical method validation parameters like selectivity, accuracy, precision, recovery, stability, and matrix effect. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Reflections on Decisions Made on the Well-Established Use of Medicinal Products by EU Regulators and the ECJ
Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82(3), 655-664; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1402-14 - 24 Mar 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 800
Abstract
Background: In the European Union (EU), a medicinal product needs a marketing authorization (MA) to be placed on the market. The EU’s medicinal products’ legislative framework allows for a reduced application for medicines outside their data exclusivity. One such type of application is [...] Read more.
Background: In the European Union (EU), a medicinal product needs a marketing authorization (MA) to be placed on the market. The EU’s medicinal products’ legislative framework allows for a reduced application for medicines outside their data exclusivity. One such type of application is the well-established use (WEU) medicinal product application (i.e. bibliographic applications). Recently, these MA applications have been subject to arbitration procedures at the European Medicines Agency’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) because of disagreements between member states during the authorisation process. This paper reflects on these cases and highlights their potential impact on future WEU applications. Methods: Decisions adopted by the European Commission on WEU applications between 2009 and 2012 were identified from the EU Community Register on medicinal products for human use. Subsequently, decisions were reviewed to understand the potential serious risk to public health (PSRPH) that EU regulators raised during MA application procedures. Results: Four decisions were adopted by the EU commission between 2009 and 2012. Three followed disagreements between member states on PSRPH authorisation application. Six key messages were identified from the four cases reviewed and presented. Conclusion: A guideline on WEU to implement the technical specifications to fulfil Annex I of Directive 2001/83/EC for MA applications is not available. Thus, reflections on recent decisions on WEU applications provide scientific direction to the industry as well as the medicinal product regulators on the documentation required to successfully file and obtain a WEU MA. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Anticonvulsant and Anxiolytic Potentials of Methyl Jasmonate in Mice
Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82(3), 643-654; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1310-22 - 24 Mar 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 668
Abstract
Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is one of the most well-studied plant stress hormones belonging to the jasmonate family. Previous studies have shown that MJ potentiated pentobarbitone sleeping time and enhanced GABA-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission, suggesting potential benefits in disorders associated with hyperactivity of the brain. [...] Read more.
Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is one of the most well-studied plant stress hormones belonging to the jasmonate family. Previous studies have shown that MJ potentiated pentobarbitone sleeping time and enhanced GABA-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission, suggesting potential benefits in disorders associated with hyperactivity of the brain. This study was carried out to evaluate whether MJ has anticonvulsant and anxiolytic properties in mice. The anticonvulsant effect was assessed based on the prevention of tonic-clonic seizures induced by chemoconvulsant agents in mice. The anxiolytic property was evaluated utilizing the elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark transition paradigms. The effect of MJ on spontaneous locomotor activity (SMA) was also assessed. Mice received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of MJ 30 min before the tests were carried out and diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was used as the reference drug. MJ (50–400 mg/kg) did not protect the mice against tonic-clonic convulsions induced by picrotoxin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or strychnine (3 mg/kg, i.p.). However, MJ (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) offered 20, 60, and 100% protection against pentylenetetrazole (100 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced convulsions. In a similar manner to diazepam (2 mg/kg), MJ (400 mg/kg) produced a marked sedative effect as shown by decreases in the number of lines crossed and the duration of ambulation in the open field test. In contrast to diazepam (2 mg/kg), MJ (5–50 mg/kg) did not show anxiolytic effects in the EPM and light/dark transition paradigms. These findings suggest that methyl jasmonate at high doses possessed anticonvulsant properties in the pentylenetetrazole animal model of epilepsy, but did not produce anxiolytic activity in mice. Full article
Open AccessArticle
New Chemometrics Mode Based on Adjacent Data Points’ Differences for the Simultaneous Determination of Clopidogrel, Atorvastatin, and Aspirin in their Combined Ternary Drug Formulation
Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82(3), 601-616; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1401-21 - 24 Mar 2014
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 688
Abstract
A new method is proposed for the analysis of a ternary mixture composed of clopidogrel, atorvastatin, and aspirin without prior separation steps. The method combines the advantages of the mean centering of ratio spectra and derivative spectrophotometric methods. It is based on using [...] Read more.
A new method is proposed for the analysis of a ternary mixture composed of clopidogrel, atorvastatin, and aspirin without prior separation steps. The method combines the advantages of the mean centering of ratio spectra and derivative spectrophotometric methods. It is based on using the difference between adjacent data points in the absorbance spectra. The principal advantage of this method is the use of absorbance data, and not derivative data; hence the signal-to-noise ratio is not diminished. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is illustrated. Beer’s law was valid in the concentration range 0.3–35 μg.mL−1 for CLOP, 0.5–30 μg.mL−1 for ATOR, and 1–40 μg.mL−1 for ASP. Mean recoveries were obtained as 100.2, 100.1, and 100.2% for CLOP, ATOR, and ASP, respectively, in the prepared synthetic mixtures. The method has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of ternary mixtures of aspirin, clopidogrel bisulphate, and atorvastatin calcium. The analytical characteristics of the method were calculated. The results showed that the new method is simple, rapid, accurate, and precise. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of 6-Thioxo-6,7-dihydro-2H-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-c]-quinazolin-2-one Derivatives
Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82(3), 483-500; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1402-10 - 24 Mar 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 738
Abstract
Potassium 8-R1-9-R2-10-R3-3-R-2-oxo-2Н-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-с]quinazoline-6-thiolates 2.1–2.26 were synthesized via cyclocondensation of 6-R-3-(3-R1-4-R2-5-R3-aminophenyl)-1,2,4-triazin-5-ones 1.1–1.26 with carbon disulfide, potassium hydroxide, and ethanol or with potassium O-ethyl dithiocarbonate in 2-propanol. The corresponding [...] Read more.
Potassium 8-R1-9-R2-10-R3-3-R-2-oxo-2Н-[1,2,4]triazino[2,3-с]quinazoline-6-thiolates 2.1–2.26 were synthesized via cyclocondensation of 6-R-3-(3-R1-4-R2-5-R3-aminophenyl)-1,2,4-triazin-5-ones 1.1–1.26 with carbon disulfide, potassium hydroxide, and ethanol or with potassium O-ethyl dithiocarbonate in 2-propanol. The corresponding thiones 3.1–3.26 were obtained by treatment of 2.1–2.26 with hydrochloric acid. It was found that the nature of the substituents in positions 3, 4, and 5 of the corresponding 6-R-3-(3-R1-4-R2-5-R3-amino-phenyl)-1,2,4-triazin-5-ones were affected on the terms of the reaction. The structures of compounds were proven by a complex of physicochemical methods (1H, 13C NMR, LC–MS, and EI-MS). The results of the antibacterial and antifungal activity assay allowed the determination of the high sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (MIC 6.25–100 μg/mL, MBC 12.5–200 μg/mL) to the synthesized compounds. Full article
Open AccessArticle
HPLC-DAD Method for the Pharmacokinetic Interaction Study of Atorvastatin with Pioglitazone and Cholestyramine in Wistar Rats
Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82(3), 555-570; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1401-18 - 13 Mar 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 825
Abstract
Carotid intima-media thickness is used as a surrogate marker for cardiovascular complications in diabetes mellitus. The combination of atorvastatin and pioglitazone was found to be effective in reducing the thickness of the carotid intima-media layer. The method of RP-HPLC coupled with a diode [...] Read more.
Carotid intima-media thickness is used as a surrogate marker for cardiovascular complications in diabetes mellitus. The combination of atorvastatin and pioglitazone was found to be effective in reducing the thickness of the carotid intima-media layer. The method of RP-HPLC coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) was developed for the pharmacokinetic interaction study of atorvastatin with pioglitazone and cholestyramine, respectively, in Wistar rats. Atorvastatin (ATR) and pioglitazone (PIO) were resolved on a C18 column with a mobile phase composed of 48% methanol, 19% acetonitrile, and 33% 10 mM ammonium formate (v/v/v; pH 3.5±0.3, by formic acid) and a 260 nm detection wavelength on the diode array detector. The method was validated according to international standards with good reproducibility and linear response; mean (r) 0.9987 and 0.9972 to ATR and PIO, respectively. The coefficients of variation of intra- and interassay precision ranged between 4.95–8.12 and 7.29–9.67, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined in rats following an oral administration of atorvastatin in the presence and absence of pioglitazone and also with cholestyramine. Compared with the control given atorvastatin alone, the Cmax and AUC of atorvastatin were merely unchanged in rats with the co-administration of pioglitazone, while they decreased by nearly 21 and 15%, respectively, with the concurrent use of cholestyramine. There were no significant changes in Tmax and the plasma half-life (T1/2) of atorvastatin in both cases. The performed experiment demonstrated that the presented method was suitable for the estimation and pharmacokinetic interaction study of atorvastatin with pioglitazone and cholestyramine in Wistar rat plasma. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Short and Efficient Synthesis of Alkyl- and Aryl-Ortho-Hydroxy-Anilides and their Antibiotic Activity
Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82(3), 501-518; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1401-19 - 13 Mar 2014
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 832
Abstract
Ortho-hydroxy-anilides are part of natural products like the new antibiotics platencin (A) and platensimycin (B). An important step in the total synthesis of these antibiotics or their derivatives is the preparation of the o-hydroxy-anilide partial structure. The presented method allows the preparation [...] Read more.
Ortho-hydroxy-anilides are part of natural products like the new antibiotics platencin (A) and platensimycin (B). An important step in the total synthesis of these antibiotics or their derivatives is the preparation of the o-hydroxy-anilide partial structure. The presented method allows the preparation of o-hydroxy-anilides and o-dihydroxy-anilides from 2-nitrophenol esters in a one-step synthesis without protecting the hydroxy group. Aryl- and alkyl-anilides were prepared following this method as simple analogues of platensimycin (A). The resulting compounds were tested in an agar diffusion assay for their antibiotic potency. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Validated Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Azelnidipine and Olmesartan in Their Combined Dosage Form
Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82(3), 541-554; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1312-14 - 27 Feb 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 900
Abstract
A simple, rapid, and highly selective RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Azelnidipine (AZL) and Olmesartan (OLM) drug substances in the fixed dosage strength of 16 mg and 20 mg, respectively. Effective chromatographic separation was achieved using a Hypersil GOLD [...] Read more.
A simple, rapid, and highly selective RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Azelnidipine (AZL) and Olmesartan (OLM) drug substances in the fixed dosage strength of 16 mg and 20 mg, respectively. Effective chromatographic separation was achieved using a Hypersil GOLD C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm internal diameter, 5 μm particle size) with a mobile phase composed of methanol, acetonitrile, and water in the ratio of 40:40:20 (by volume). The mobile phase was pumped using a gradient HPLC system at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, and quantification of the analytes was based on measuring their peak areas at 260 nm. The retention times for Azelnidipine and Olmesartan were about 8.56 and 3.04 min, respectively. The reliability and analytical performance of the proposed HPLC procedure were statistically validated with respect to system suitability, linearity, ranges, precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness, detection, and quantification limits. Calibration curves were linear in the ranges of 2–48 μg/mL for Azelnidipine and 2.5–60 μg/mL for Olmesartan with correlation coefficients >0.990. The proposed method proved to be selective and stability-indicating by the resolution of the two analytes from the forced degradation (hydrolysis, oxidation, and photolysis) products. The validated HPLC method was successfully applied to the analysis of AZL and OLM in their combined dosage form. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Quality by Design-Based Development of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Methylparaben, Propylparaben, Diethylamino Hydroxybenzoyl Hexyl Benzoate, and Octinoxate in Topical Pharmaceutical Formulation
Sci. Pharm. 2014, 82(3), 519-540; https://doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.1312-20 - 27 Feb 2014
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DAHHB), and octinoxate (OCT) in topical pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on the KinetexTM C18 (250 × [...] Read more.
A stability-indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of methylparaben (MP), propylparaben (PP), diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DAHHB), and octinoxate (OCT) in topical pharmaceutical formulation. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on the KinetexTM C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using gradient elution at 257 nm detection wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a buffer : acetonitrile : tetrahydrofuran (60 : 30 : 10, v/v/v) as solvent A and acetonitrile : tetrahydrofuran (70 : 30, v/v) as solvent B. The method showed linearity over the range of 0.19–148.4 μg/mL, 0.23–15.3 μg/mL, 1.97–600.5 μg/mL, and 1.85–451.5 μg/mL for MP, PP, DAHHB, and OCT, respectively. Recovery for all the components was found to be in the range of 98–102%. The stability-indicating capability of the developed method was established by analysing the forced degradation samples in which the spectral purity of MP, PP, DAHHB, and OCT, along with the separation of the degradation products from the analyte peaks, was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of MP, PP, DAHHB, and OCT in the lotion sample. The design expert with ANOVA software with the linear model was applied and a 24 full factorial design was employed to estimate the model coefficients and also to check the robustness of the method. Results of the two-level full factorial design, 24 with 20 runs including four centrepoint analysis based on the variance analysis (ANOVA), demonstrated that all four factors, as well as the interactions of resolution between DAHHB and OCT are statistically significant. Full article
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