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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Sensitive, Linear, Robust Current-To-Time Converter Circuit for Vehicle Automation Application

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 3301 South Dearborn Street, Siegel Hall, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Electronics 2020, 9(3), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9030490
Received: 10 February 2020 / Revised: 5 March 2020 / Accepted: 7 March 2020 / Published: 16 March 2020
Voltage-to-time and current-to-time converters have been used in many recent works as a voltage-to-digital converter for artificial intelligence applications. In general, most of the previous designs use the current-starved technique or a capacitor-based delay unit, which is non-linear, expensive, and requires a large area. In this paper, we propose a highly linear current-to-digital converter. An optimization method is also proposed to generate the optimal converter design containing the smallest number of PMOS and sensitive circuits such as a differential amplifier. This enabled our design to be more stable and robust toward negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) and process variation. The proposed converter circuit implements the point-wise conversion from current-to-time, and it can be used directly for a variety of applications, such as analog-to-digital converters (ADC), used in built-in computational random access (C-RAM) memory. The conversion gain of the proposed circuit is 3.86 ms/A, which is 52 times greater than the conversion gains of state-of-the-art designs. Further, various time-to-digital converter (TDC) circuits are reviewed for the proposed current-to-time converter, and we recommend one circuit for a complete ADC design. View Full-Text
Keywords: automation of vehicles; internet of things; current-to-time converter; speed; reliability NBTI; PBTI; ADC; life-time automation of vehicles; internet of things; current-to-time converter; speed; reliability NBTI; PBTI; ADC; life-time
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Yadav, N.; Kim, Y.; Alashi, M.; Choi, K.K. Sensitive, Linear, Robust Current-To-Time Converter Circuit for Vehicle Automation Application. Electronics 2020, 9, 490.

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