# Full Duplex Component-Forward Cooperative Communication for a Secure Wireless Communication System

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Motivation and Contribution

- A component-forward cooperative communication is proposed to minimize the possibility of interference in IBFD with D2D, AN and modulation-based interference reduction [1].
- Artificial Noise (AN) is added to prevent the increasing security threats for the proposed FD component-forward (FD-CF) cooperative communication system. The AN increases the interference at the Eve’s node and declines the possible material decoding. It also drains Eve by providing high computational complexity and energy.
- The aforesaid approaches are used for refining the system’s secrecy capacity, outage probability and throughput.
- Alongside the basic system, RFEH is also used to further elaborate the proposed scheme with secrecy capacity, outage probability and throughput in the presence of a TS based RFEH circuit.

#### 1.2. Structure

## 2. System Model

#### 2.1. Addition of Artificial Noise for Better Security

#### 2.2. System Analysis

## 3. Performance Evaluation

#### 3.1. Computation of Secrecy Capacity

#### 3.2. Relay Selection

#### 3.3. Computation of Secrecy Outage Probability

#### 3.4. Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting (RFEH)

#### 3.5. Secrecy Throughput Evaluation

## 4. Numerical Results

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

## References

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**Figure 1.**Full Duplex Component-Forward (FD-CF) cooperative communication system with one source (Alice), K relays with FD mode and the receiver (Bob) with no direct link with Alice. A shows the complex artificial noise added to the transmitted signal s. Alice modulates ${s}_{ar}$ on the real component of the constellation and the selected relay modulates ${s}_{rb}$ on the imaginary component of the 16-QAM modulation to prevent interference in the IBFD mode.

**Figure 2.**Data rate comparison for Full Duplex Component-Forward (FD-CF) and Full Duplex Decode-and-Forward (FD-DF) with three different value of distances ${d}_{ar}$ and ${d}_{rb}$.

**Figure 3.**Secrecy capacity comparison for Full Duplex Component-Forward (FD-CF) and Full Duplex Decode-and-Forward (FD-DF).

**Figure 4.**Secrecy capacity comparison for Full Duplex Component-Forward (FD-CF) and Full Duplex Decode-and-Forward (FD-DF) with harvested power ${P}_{r}$ and $eta=0.6$.

**Figure 5.**Secrecy outage probability comparison for Full Duplex Component-Forward (FD-CF) and Full Duplex Decode-and-Forward (FD-DF) with ${C}_{th}=1$, ${\zeta}_{rb}={\zeta}_{rr}=12$ dB, $K=1,2,4$ and ${\zeta}_{re}$ is calculated with respect to Rayleigh flat fading and respective interference.

**Figure 6.**Secrecy outage probability comparison for Full Duplex Component-Forward (FD-CF) and Full Duplex Decode-and-Forward (FD-DF) with ${C}_{th}=1$, ${\zeta}_{rb}={\zeta}_{rr}=12$ dB, $K=1,2,4$, ${\zeta}_{re}$ is calculated with respect to Rayleigh flat fading and respective interference and harvested power ${P}_{r}$ and $eta=0.6$.

**Figure 7.**Throughput comparison for Full Duplex Component-Forward (FD-CF) and Full Duplex Decode-and-Forward (FD-DF) with ${C}_{th}=1$, ${\zeta}_{rb}={\zeta}_{rr}=12$ dB, $K=1,2,4$ and ${\zeta}_{re}$ is calculated with respect to Rayleigh flat fading and respective interference.

**Figure 8.**Throughput comparison for Full Duplex Component-Forward (FD-CF) and Full Duplex Decode-and-Forward (FD-DF) with ${C}_{th}=1$, ${\zeta}_{rb}={\zeta}_{rr}=12$ dB, harvested power ${P}_{r}$, $\alpha =0.5$, $\eta =0.6$, $\alpha =0.5$, $K=1,2,4$ and ${\zeta}_{re}$ is calculated with respect to Rayleigh flat fading and respective interference.

**Figure 9.**Throughput comparison for Full Duplex Component-Forward (FD-CF) and Full Duplex Decode-and-Forward (FD-DF) with harvested power ${P}_{r}$, $\sigma =0.25$ and $\eta =0.6$.

Domain | Full Duplex Decode-and-Forward | Full Duplex Component Forward |
---|---|---|

Modulation on the Alice | Actual message signal is modulated on both real and imaginary component of the modulation technique. | Actual message signal is modulated either on the real or imaginary component of the modulation technique to prevent interference in the FD mode. |

Modulation on the Relay | Actual message signal is modulated on both real and imaginary component of the modulation before the relay forwards the signal. | The received message signal is modulated on the opposite component of the received signal to prevent interference with the same component in the FD mode. |

Co-channel Interference with AN | Yes. | Only with the similar (real or imaginary) component of AN. Very less as compared to FD-DF. |

Co-channel Interference without AN | Yes. | Ideally No. |

Signal to interference plus noise ratio | Low due to interference. | High due to less or no interference. |

Channel Capacity | Low due to interference. | High due to less or no interference. |

Secrecy Capacity | Low. | High due to high interference on Eve’s node. |

Acronym | Definition | Acronym | Definition |
---|---|---|---|

5G | Fifth Generation | B5G | Beyond 5G |

${P}_{T}$ | Total power | ${P}_{1}$ | Transmission power from Alice to relay |

${P}_{2}$ | Transmission power from Relay to $Bob$ | ${P}_{r}$ | Harvested power at relay |

${d}_{ar}$ | Distance between Alice and relay | ${d}_{rb}$ | Distance between relay and $Bob$ |

$\sqrt{{g}_{ar}}$ | Channel coefficient from source to relay | $\sqrt{{g}_{rr}}$ | Channel coefficient from relay to relay |

$\sqrt{{g}_{rb}}$ | Channel coefficient from relay to $Bob$ | $\sqrt{{g}_{e}}$ | Channel coefficient from relay to Eve |

${g}_{ar}$ | Channel power gain from source to relay | ${g}_{rr}$ | Channel power gain from relay to relay |

$\gamma $ | Path Loss exponent | A | Alice |

R | Relay | B | $Bob$ |

${A}_{1}$ | Artificial noise, null space of $\sqrt{{g}_{ar}}$ | ${A}_{2}$ | Artificial noise, null space of $\sqrt{{g}_{rn}}$ |

D2D | Device-to-Device | $\alpha $ | Time switching factor |

${\mathcal{E}}_{\mathcal{H}}$ | Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting | $\eta $ | Energy conversion efficiency |

${P}_{th}$ | Saturated threshold power | $\mathcal{TP}$ | Throughput |

AN | Artificial Noise | AWGN | Additive White Gaussian Noise |

CDF | Cumulative Distributive Function | CF | Component-Forward |

DF | Decode-and-Forward | FD | Full Duplex |

HD | Half Duplex | IBFD | In-Band Full Duplex |

Probability Density Function | PS | Power Splitting | |

RFEH | Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting | SNR | Signal to Noise Ratio |

SINR | Signal to Interference plus Noise Ration | SOP | Secrecy Outage Probability |

SE | Spectral Efficiency | TS | Time Switching |

T | Time |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Khan, R.; Jayakody, D.N.K.
Full Duplex Component-Forward Cooperative Communication for a Secure Wireless Communication System. *Electronics* **2020**, *9*, 2102.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9122102

**AMA Style**

Khan R, Jayakody DNK.
Full Duplex Component-Forward Cooperative Communication for a Secure Wireless Communication System. *Electronics*. 2020; 9(12):2102.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9122102

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Khan, Rabia, and Dushantha Nalin K. Jayakody.
2020. "Full Duplex Component-Forward Cooperative Communication for a Secure Wireless Communication System" *Electronics* 9, no. 12: 2102.
https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9122102