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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Development of a Compact, IoT-Enabled Electronic Nose for Breath Analysis

School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2020, 9(1), 84;
Received: 29 November 2019 / Revised: 17 December 2019 / Accepted: 28 December 2019 / Published: 1 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Application of Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
In this paper, we report on an in-house developed electronic nose (E-nose) for use with breath analysis. The unit consists of an array of 10 micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors produced by seven manufacturers. Breath sampling of end-tidal breath is achieved using a heated sample tube, capable of monitoring sampling-related parameters, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), humidity, and temperature. A simple mobile app was developed to receive real-time data from the device, using Wi-Fi communication. The system has been tested using chemical standards and exhaled breath samples from healthy volunteers, before and after taking a peppermint capsule. Results from chemical testing indicate that we can separate chemical standards (acetone, isopropanol and 1-propanol) and different concentrations of isobutylene. The analysis of exhaled breath samples demonstrate that we can distinguish between pre- and post-consumption of peppermint capsules; area under the curve (AUC): 0.81, sensitivity: 0.83 (0.59–0.96), specificity: 0.72 (0.47–0.90), p-value: <0.001. The functionality of the developed device has been demonstrated with the testing of chemical standards and a simplified breath study using peppermint capsules. It is our intention to deploy this system in a UK hospital in an upcoming breath research study. View Full-Text
Keywords: Breath analysis; electronic nose (E-nose); Internet-of-Things (IoT) Breath analysis; electronic nose (E-nose); Internet-of-Things (IoT)
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Tiele, A.; Wicaksono, A.; Ayyala, S.K.; Covington, J.A. Development of a Compact, IoT-Enabled Electronic Nose for Breath Analysis. Electronics 2020, 9, 84.

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