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Resources, Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2020) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Nickel-based superalloys allow higher combustion temperatures in the gas turbine and, thus, higher fuel efficiency and lower CO2 emissions of jet engines. A semi-quantitative assessment scheme is used to evaluate the relative supply risks associated with elements contained in various Ni-based superalloys. The supply risks for rhenium, molybdenum, and cobalt are found to be the highest. The introduction of rhenium as a component starting with second-generation single crystal alloys developed in the 1980s is the main reason for higher supply risks in the cost-share aggregation scheme. The resulting higher supply risk appears, however, to be acceptable for jet engine applications. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
Ash Characteristics and Selected Critical Elements (Ga, Sc, V) in Coal and Ash in Polish Deposits
Resources 2020, 9(9), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090115 - 19 Sep 2020
Viewed by 671
Abstract
The chemical composition of coal ash and the content of the critical elements Ga, Sc, and V in coal and ash are examined herein. In this study, lignite and bituminous coal from Polish deposits were used. The coals were subjected to ultimate and [...] Read more.
The chemical composition of coal ash and the content of the critical elements Ga, Sc, and V in coal and ash are examined herein. In this study, lignite and bituminous coal from Polish deposits were used. The coals were subjected to ultimate and proximate analysis; the petrographic composition was determined based on maceral groups. The chemical composition of ash and the content of critical elements were determined using ICP-MS. The obtained results were correlated and Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient was determined. Based on the correlation analysis, the relationship between the chemical composition of ash and the proximate and ultimate analyses was demonstrated. The content of selected critical elements in the tested deposits was lower than the Clarke value in coal. However, in some deposits these contents are much higher in coal ashes. The higher levels of Ga, V, and Sc in the ash are associated with Al2O3. Therefore, it can be stated that ashes can be a potential source of some raw materials. The highest concentrations of critical elements in coal and ash were recorded in the Lublin Coal Basin. Supra-Clarke contents of Ga, V, and Sc were recorded in the Bogdanka coal mine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Resource Management: Assessment, Mining and Processing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Biofuel, Bioenergy and Feed Valorization of By-Products and Residues from Hevea brasiliensis Cultivation to Enhance Sustainability
Resources 2020, 9(9), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090114 - 17 Sep 2020
Viewed by 781
Abstract
In the latex production chain, rubber tree seeds (Hevea brasiliensis) represent an underutilized fraction with high potentialities, which can increase the sustainability of the whole process if rightly valorized. In the present study, the quality of all the fractions obtained from [...] Read more.
In the latex production chain, rubber tree seeds (Hevea brasiliensis) represent an underutilized fraction with high potentialities, which can increase the sustainability of the whole process if rightly valorized. In the present study, the quality of all the fractions obtained from the rubber fruit were evaluated, with the aim to identify possible applications for their valorization with a circular economy perspective. Seeds from five different varieties of rubber tree were analyzed. Furthermore, a whole mass and energy balance was defined, which has allowed us to define hypothetical production scenarios. The obtained results show negligible differences among varieties. Shells and capsules have shown a composition similar to woody biomass, with high heating values (more than 16.5 MJ kg−1), low nitrogen content (below 0.5% on weight basis (w/w)) and reduced ash content (0.51% w/w and 1.90% w/w, respectively). Kernels were chemically extracted comparing two different solvents: n-hexane and ethanol. Both solvents showed similar extraction yields, i.e., 49% w/w and 46% w/w for n-hexane and ethanol, respectively. The resulting extraction flour was characterized by a high protein content (around 40% w/w) making it suitable for animal feeding. The rubber seed oil could be used in blends of different vegetable oils for biodiesel production. All this information is useful for improving the sustainability of the latex production chain and to assess the sustainability of possible bioenergy value chains. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Assessing Resources Management for Sharing Economy in Urban Logistics
Resources 2020, 9(9), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090113 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 997
Abstract
Sharing economy requires cities to redefine their management strategies. As a consequence of the development of new ideas, the main aim of modern cities should focus on achieving the sustainable use of resources. In the existing literature, only a partial analysis of resources [...] Read more.
Sharing economy requires cities to redefine their management strategies. As a consequence of the development of new ideas, the main aim of modern cities should focus on achieving the sustainable use of resources. In the existing literature, only a partial analysis of resources management in cities can be found. For this reason, the authors decided to prepare the framework for empirical research about resources management in sharing economy in cities, especially in the urban logistics system. The main aim of the study is systematizing criteria related to the assessment of the management of urban resources in the era of sharing economy. To achieve the goal of the research, a systematic literature review was made according to chosen approaches and procedures. This resulted in creating a set of criteria for the analysis and evaluation of resources management in urban areas. It contains five areas with 26 criteria and a map of assumed correlations between them. Those outcomes can be used by local authorities or even other urban logistics stakeholders to define or improve their actions aimed at developing a sharing economy services portfolio on the local market. Additionally, they constitute a set of initial information for further scientific research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Responsible Resource Management in Micro and Macro Scale)
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Open AccessArticle
Method of Selecting Opening Cut Location Using Multi-Criteria Analysis of Decision Variant Mapping
Resources 2020, 9(9), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090112 - 11 Sep 2020
Viewed by 743
Abstract
The aim of the article is to present a solution to the research problem that addresses the selection of the opening cut location in the surface mining method. Selecting the opening cut location is a strategic mine planning matter and has a key [...] Read more.
The aim of the article is to present a solution to the research problem that addresses the selection of the opening cut location in the surface mining method. Selecting the opening cut location is a strategic mine planning matter and has a key impact on the overall processes occurring during mining operations. This choice is a complex, and at the same time, mathematically ill-defined issue. The selection procedure should take into account many, often opposing, perspectives of the interveners, who represent the criteria laid down by the technical and organisational, economic, as well as social and environmental groups. In order to be able to compare criteria of a different nature, the authors implemented a multi-criteria method as a solution, derived from operational research. The mathematical tool best suited to the characteristics of the issue of selecting the opening cut location is a method from the ELECTRE family, which was used to create the final solution ranking. The main achievement of the method presented is the specification of a complementary group of assessment criteria and the application of a method allowing a solution to be created, which results in the selection of the most favourable decision variant. The developed method supports decision-makers responsible for making investment decisions in the implementation of mining projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Resource Management: Assessment, Mining and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Coal’s Petrographic Composition on Its Suitability for the Gasification Process: The Example of Polish Deposits
Resources 2020, 9(9), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090111 - 09 Sep 2020
Viewed by 740
Abstract
In this paper, we discuss the impact of the rank of coal, petrographic composition, and physico-chemical coal properties on the release and composition of syngas during coal gasification in a CO2 atmosphere. This study used humic coals (parabituminous to anthracite) and lithotypes [...] Read more.
In this paper, we discuss the impact of the rank of coal, petrographic composition, and physico-chemical coal properties on the release and composition of syngas during coal gasification in a CO2 atmosphere. This study used humic coals (parabituminous to anthracite) and lithotypes (bright coal and dull coal). Gasification was performed at temperatures between 600 and 1100 °C. It was found that the gas release depends on the temperature and rank of coal, and the reactivity increases with the increasing rank of coal. It was shown that the coal lithotype does not affect the gas composition or the process. Until 900 °C, the most intense processes were observed for higher rank coals. Above 1000 °C, the most reactive coals had a vitrinite reflectance of 0.5–0.6%. It was confirmed that the gasification of low-rank coal should be performed at temperatures above 1000 °C, and the reactivity of coal depends on the petrographic composition and physico-chemical features. It was shown that inertinite has a negative impact on the H2 content; at 950 °C, the increase in H2 depends on the rank of coal and vitrinite content. The physicochemical properties of coal rely on the content of maceral groups and the rank of coal. An improved understanding these relationships will allow the optimal selection of coal for gasification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Resource Management: Assessment, Mining and Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Statistical Approach to the Problem of Selecting the Most Appropriate Model for Managing Stormwater in Newly Designed Multi-Family Housing Estates
Resources 2020, 9(9), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090110 - 05 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
Stormwater is a valuable resource, whose management in harmony with nature is one of the main challenges of modern water management. The problems encountered are additionally exacerbated by the lack of space for the development of sustainable drainage systems. For that reason, new [...] Read more.
Stormwater is a valuable resource, whose management in harmony with nature is one of the main challenges of modern water management. The problems encountered are additionally exacerbated by the lack of space for the development of sustainable drainage systems. For that reason, new housing estates should be designed considering efficient stormwater management. This paper assesses five stormwater management models to determine the statistically most appropriate model for managing stormwater in newly designed multi-family housing estates using multi-criteria analysis. Various options were assessed by means of the scoring method based on six groups of criteria (political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental). The research considered the different views and priorities of the experts involved in stormwater management in Poland. A survey conducted among them showed that the statistically most suitable way of managing stormwater is its infiltration into the ground with the use of infiltration basins or tanks. Only if the possibility of their application is excluded, should the application of other models of stormwater management, especially its retention, be considered. It is expected that the research results presented in this paper will be a guide for investors and developers, and their use will allow people who are not experts in the field of stormwater management to make appropriate decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
Integration of Well Logging and Remote Sensing Data for Detecting Potential Geothermal Sites along the Gulf of Suez, Egypt
Resources 2020, 9(9), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090109 - 04 Sep 2020
Viewed by 898
Abstract
The Gulf of Suez area is one of the most favorable regions in Egypt for geothermal exploitation since it hosts an evident cluster of superficial thermal springs. Some of these thermal springs include Hammam Musa, Hammam Faraun, Sudr, Ayn Musa and Ain Sokhna, [...] Read more.
The Gulf of Suez area is one of the most favorable regions in Egypt for geothermal exploitation since it hosts an evident cluster of superficial thermal springs. Some of these thermal springs include Hammam Musa, Hammam Faraun, Sudr, Ayn Musa and Ain Sokhna, which are characterized by high temperatures ranging between 35 °C to 86.66 °C. It is this feature that makes the Gulf of Suez locality sufficient for geothermal power production. Corrected bottom hole temperature (BHT) data from 197 oil wells situated onshore and offshore of the Gulf of Suez were utilized for the present research. The results indicated that the study area has a geothermal gradient ranging from 24.9 to 86.66 °C/km, a heat flow ranging from 31 to 127.2 m W k−1, a thermal conductivity of 2.6–3.2 W m−1 k−1, and an amplitude temperature varying from 49.48 °C to 157.8 °C. The derived geothermal and geological layers were used together with the remote sensing thermal infrared and topographic data, to map relevant physiographic variables including surface elevation, fractures density, drainage density, nighttime land surface temperature and major lithological units. The nine produced variables were integrated in GIS to model the geothermal potential map (GTP) for the Gulf of Suez region. The model identifies the northeastern and the southwestern areas as equally two sites for high geothermal potential. Findings of this study demonstrate that integration of well logging and space data with the adopted geospatial techniques is a practical method for geothermal prospecting in similarly geologic and tectonic setting in Egypt and East Africa. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Case Study of the Retention Efficiency of a Traditional and Innovative Drainage System
Resources 2020, 9(9), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090108 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 862
Abstract
To determine the effectiveness of the retention capacity utilization of traditional and innovative drainage systems equipped with damming partitions, the detailed model tests were carried out. The research results allowed indicating what values of the hydraulic parameter of the innovative drainage system should [...] Read more.
To determine the effectiveness of the retention capacity utilization of traditional and innovative drainage systems equipped with damming partitions, the detailed model tests were carried out. The research results allowed indicating what values of the hydraulic parameter of the innovative drainage system should be adopted in order to effectively use the retention capacity of drainage collectors. The adoption of short distances between the LKR damming partitions and a high level of permissible rainfall of stormwater Hper turned out to be the most effective solution. In the most favorable conditions, the peak flow was reduced by up to 60% (717.46 dm3/s) compared to the values established in the traditional drainage system (1807.62 dm3/s). The benefits obtained resulted from the increased retention efficiency of the drainage system after equipping it with the damming partitions. It was found that the innovative system always achieved the maximum retention capacity with longer rainfall compared to the traditional system. In the real catchment area, an increase in the use of the retention capacity of the drainage system, from an initial value of 65% for a traditional system to almost 88% for an innovative system, was also found. Very large variability of the volume of accumulated stormwater in the conduits of the traditional and innovative drainage system was observed during rainfall, which generated the peak rainfall discharge in the innovative system. With rainfall of TRK duration, the innovative system accumulated up to 746.50 m3 more stormwater compared to a traditional system, which was 49.2% of the total retention capacity of the drainage system, with a value of 1515.76 m3. The approach to reduce the growing flood risk in cities provided the right approach to long-term urban drainage system planning, especially since traditional drainage systems are still the leading way to transport stormwater in cities. In addition, the innovative sewage system gives the possibility of favorable cooperation with any objects (LID) and retention tanks with any hydraulic model. The implementation of an innovative system allows achieving significant financial savings and reducing the need to reserve areas designated for infrastructure investments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
A Method for an Integrated Sustainability Assessment of RFID Technology
Resources 2020, 9(9), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090107 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Industry 4.0 (I4.0) has become a widely accepted manufacturing paradigm across a wide range of industries. It includes an array of various approaches, tools, techniques, and methods. They were known to researchers before, but when combined they build a new reality, which needs [...] Read more.
Industry 4.0 (I4.0) has become a widely accepted manufacturing paradigm across a wide range of industries. It includes an array of various approaches, tools, techniques, and methods. They were known to researchers before, but when combined they build a new reality, which needs procedures for the assessment of technologies and manufacturing processes. Current assessment methods often fail to incorporate economic, environmental, and social impacts simultaneously in an integrated way. The potential implementation of a sustainability assessment procedure on a larger scale is seen for (well-developed) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. The measures for assessment were identified through a literature review and validated by expert panels. Validation measures were quantified using multi-criteria decision making (AHP). Criteria ranking was used for reasoning if the assumed modular structure responded to the experts’ needs. To connect the existing research gap, a holistic and integrated assessment method for I4.0 applications, depicted in a structured way and tailored for RFID technology, is developed, which constitutes a research gap in current literature on this topic. Results showed that a modularized structure of approach (module—group of measures—measures [as indicators]) for RFID sustainability assessment, which depends on the complexity of this technology, may be a convenient method for assessment of I4.0 technologies. It was confirmed that all sustainability perspectives are important due to their contributions to supporting decisions and should be considered in the assessment of RFID. On the other hand, it can help managers and practitioners implement the assessment method in their practice to reduce pollution and save the environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Supply Risk Considerations for the Elements in Nickel-Based Superalloys
Resources 2020, 9(9), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090106 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1145
Abstract
Nickel-based superalloys contain various elements which are added in order to make the alloys more resistant to thermal and mechanical stress and to the adverse operating environments in jet engines. In particular, higher combustion temperatures in the gas turbine are important, since they [...] Read more.
Nickel-based superalloys contain various elements which are added in order to make the alloys more resistant to thermal and mechanical stress and to the adverse operating environments in jet engines. In particular, higher combustion temperatures in the gas turbine are important, since they result in higher fuel efficiency and thus in lower CO2 emissions. In this paper, a semi-quantitative assessment scheme is used to evaluate the relative supply risks associated with elements contained in various Ni-based superalloys: aluminium, titanium, chromium, iron, cobalt, niobium, molybdenum, ruthenium, tantalum, tungsten, and rhenium. Twelve indicators on the elemental level and four aggregation methods are applied in order to obtain the supply risk at the alloy level. The supply risks for the elements rhenium, molybdenum and cobalt are found to be the highest. For three of the aggregation schemes, the spread in supply risk values for the different alloy types (as characterized by chemical composition and the endurance temperature) is generally narrow. The fourth, namely the cost-share’ aggregation scheme, gives rise to a broader distribution of supply risk values. This is mainly due to the introduction of rhenium as a component starting with second-generation single crystal alloys. The resulting higher supply risk appears, however, to be acceptable for jet engine applications due to the higher temperatures these alloys can endure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Characteristics of Slinky-Coil Ground Heat Exchanger with Discrete Double Inclined Ribs
Resources 2020, 9(9), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090105 - 30 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1024
Abstract
The slinky ground heat exchanger (GHE) is the most widely utilized horizontal-type GHE, however, this GHE has a low curvature coil. The GHE has poor thermal mixing, especially at a low flowrate. At this flowrate, the coil heat exchanger has similar performance to [...] Read more.
The slinky ground heat exchanger (GHE) is the most widely utilized horizontal-type GHE, however, this GHE has a low curvature coil. The GHE has poor thermal mixing, especially at a low flowrate. At this flowrate, the coil heat exchanger has similar performance to a straight tube heat exchanger. Discrete double-inclined ribs (DDIR) are well known for their good thermal mixing by generating a vortex in straight tubes. In this paper, a numerical analysis of thermal performance for the plain coil and DDIR coil is discussed. It was found that the thermal performance of the DDIR coil was slightly higher than that of the plain coil in laminar flow. In turbulent flow, the DDIR coil was superior to the plain coil only in the first 149-min operation. The first 60-min analysis shows that in laminar flow, the average heat transfer rate in the plain coil is 59 W/m and in the DDIR coil is 60.1 W/m. In turbulent flow, the average heat transfer rate is 62 W/m, and the plain coil is 62.3 W/m. The copper DDIR coil material produced a better heat transfer rate than that of the composite and High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE). Sandy clay has the highest heat transfer rate. The influence of ground thermal conductivity on the performance of the GHE is more dominant than convection in the DDIR coil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fragmented Landscapes and Planscapes—The Double Pressure of Increasing Natural Resource Exploitation on Indigenous Sámi Lands in Northern Sweden
Resources 2020, 9(9), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090104 - 28 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1524
Abstract
Human induced land-use change through natural resource extraction has significant ecological, social and cultural effects for indigenous communities. Indigenous rights, cultural practices and identities are strongly interconnected with traditional lands. In northern Sweden, the cumulative effects from natural resource extraction have become increasingly [...] Read more.
Human induced land-use change through natural resource extraction has significant ecological, social and cultural effects for indigenous communities. Indigenous rights, cultural practices and identities are strongly interconnected with traditional lands. In northern Sweden, the cumulative effects from natural resource extraction have become increasingly problematic for Sámi reindeer herding. Land use planning and permit processes are organized based on single projects or policy sectors, instead of the needs and rights involving reindeer herding. Existing research has demonstrated loss of ground and arboreal lichen, fragmentation of pastures and reindeer avoidance of otherwise valuable pastures due to disturbance caused by competing land uses. There is however a lack of synthesis of the amount and scale of encroachments on traditional Sámi territories in Sweden so far. Likewise, while research has looked at weaknesses of the sectoral regulations in terms of cumulative impact assessment and the inadequate recognition of Sámi reindeer herding rights, no studies have analyzed the meta-pressure caused by the fragmented planning regime as a whole, as the amount of regulations regarding different land use sectors and permitting processes increases with each new type of competing activity. Through the concept of double pressure caused by the inter-related processes of fragmented landscapes and fragmented ‘planscapes’, this study seeks to capture the actual pressure the affected communities are currently experiencing. Using multiple quantitative and qualitative data sets consisting of Geographical Information Systems, policy documents, workshops discussions and interviews, we study how natural resource extraction like mining and wind energy has increased on traditional indigenous Sámi lands in northern Sweden. By expanding the analytical focus from today’s landscapes to both planscapes and the pressure from not-yet realized future projects, our results highlight the need for a holistic understanding of the situation reindeer herding is facing, calling for more relevant and legitimate land use permitting and planning mechanisms to reduce the industrial pressure on the landscape, and to address the social injustices caused by today’s planscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resources and Indigenous Peoples)
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Open AccessArticle
Variability of Air Temperature, Precipitation and Outflows in the Vistula Basin (Poland)
Resources 2020, 9(9), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090103 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
This study examines trends in temperature, precipitation and discharge rates over a 65-year observation period (1951–2015) and compares the two sub-periods 1951–1980 and 1981–2015. The research was carried out on annual and monthly values. The research area is the basin of the Vistula, [...] Read more.
This study examines trends in temperature, precipitation and discharge rates over a 65-year observation period (1951–2015) and compares the two sub-periods 1951–1980 and 1981–2015. The research was carried out on annual and monthly values. The research area is the basin of the Vistula, the largest river in Poland. The main aim of the study was to assess how changes in air temperature and precipitation in the Vistula basin have translated into river hydrology. In the 65-year study period, a lack of statistically significant trends in outflow prevailed. Compared to the full period 1951–2015, the sub-period 1951–1980 stood out for its statistically significant increase in annual average outflows. In the years 1981–2015 a slight falling trend in outflow of the Vistula was noted, though the values were not statistically significant. This was caused by significant warming during this period (an increase in air temperature of between 0.27 and 0.45 °C per decade, depending on location) and a slight increase in precipitation. Seasonal changes in outflows were more volatile. The results indicate that the Vistula’s water resources have fallen slightly as a result of changes in air temperature and precipitation and due to the river’s significant hydrological inertia, which in turn results from the catchment being very large and physiographically diverse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources and Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Renewable Energy Sector Performance Using Selected Indicators in European Union Countries
Resources 2020, 9(9), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090102 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 883
Abstract
Renewable energy is the key pillar and plays an important role in the energy systems of European Union member states and in mitigating climate change. It is supporting the transition towards a greener, resource-efficient and more competitive, low-carbon European Union economy. Above-average, average [...] Read more.
Renewable energy is the key pillar and plays an important role in the energy systems of European Union member states and in mitigating climate change. It is supporting the transition towards a greener, resource-efficient and more competitive, low-carbon European Union economy. Above-average, average and below-average values of monitored indicators in member states of the European Union in 2009–2016 were ascertained by using principal component analysis. Monitored indicators of the renewable energy sector included electricity generation, electricity capacity, investments of public financial institutions, number of employees and turnover achieved from the economic activities related to production, distribution, installation, operation and maintenance of equipment (all of them per capita). Based on the achieved results, we can state that the situation changed during the period under review. Member states have moved between above-average, average and below-average levels of renewable energy indicators. However, a lack of change in the indicators was recorded in some member states throughout the eight-year period (Finland, France, Ireland, Germany, Austria and Spain did not move significantly). Renewable energy sources (hydro, wind, solar, geothermal and energy from biomass) were evaluated as a whole due to different natural, economic and legislative conditions of European Union countries. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Metabolites from Macroalgae and Its Applications in the Cosmetic Industry: A Circular Economy Approach
Resources 2020, 9(9), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090101 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2047
Abstract
Marine macroalgae are a suitable source of ingredients due to their huge diversity, availability and nutritional and chemical composition. Their high content in proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins, but also in secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenoids or pigments, make them great candidates [...] Read more.
Marine macroalgae are a suitable source of ingredients due to their huge diversity, availability and nutritional and chemical composition. Their high content in proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins, but also in secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenoids or pigments, make them great candidates for industrial applications. The cosmetic industry is one of the biggest in the world and the search for new ingredients is constantly growing as the consumer trend now is going back to those traditional cosmetics with a more natural composition. Moreover, the concept of a circular economy is also gaining importance due to the unsustainable situation of the natural resources. Although macroalgae are already used in cosmetics, especially as thickening and gelling agents, they possess an unexplored potential, not only as excipients and additives but also as a source of new active ingredients. In this context, macroalgae are considered in many cases as resources still underexploited and they could even be obtained from the waste of other industrial sectors and be used for recovering active molecules. Therefore, the aim of this review is to compile information about the different macroalgae metabolites and their possible applications in the cosmetic industry, which could employ circular economy models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in the Environmental Sustainability of the Urban Transport System when Introducing Paid Parking for Private Vehicles
Resources 2020, 9(9), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090100 - 21 Aug 2020
Viewed by 925
Abstract
The work proposes a methodological approach to studying and assessing the environmental sustainability of the transport system of the city. The authors have selected parameters for assessing the environmental sustainability of the transport system and identified significant factors affecting environmental sustainability. A coefficient [...] Read more.
The work proposes a methodological approach to studying and assessing the environmental sustainability of the transport system of the city. The authors have selected parameters for assessing the environmental sustainability of the transport system and identified significant factors affecting environmental sustainability. A coefficient of environmental sustainability of the urban transport system and a formula for its calculation are proposed. A simulation was used to assess the amount of emissions of harmful substances from the car exhaust gases if the demand structure changes with respect to the means of transport and transportation methods. The paper presents the results of changing the parameters of the traffic flow and demand by means of transport and transportation methods when introducing a parking fee in the central part of the city, changing the cost of parking and expanding the paid parking area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewables Application: Challenges and Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle
Urban Food Waste: A Framework to Analyse Policies and Initiatives
Resources 2020, 9(9), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090099 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3343
Abstract
Food waste policy analysis has traditionally concentrated on supranational or national policies and paid little attention to the role of cities in tackling this phenomenon. Nevertheless, cities have proved to be crucial actors in tackling food waste, launching effective policies and initiatives to [...] Read more.
Food waste policy analysis has traditionally concentrated on supranational or national policies and paid little attention to the role of cities in tackling this phenomenon. Nevertheless, cities have proved to be crucial actors in tackling food waste, launching effective policies and initiatives to address it. By looking at 40 cities across 16 European countries, this study aims to present a new framework for assessing urban food waste policies and initiatives. The framework proposed identifies and sheds light on the links between the different types of policies launched, the main areas of interventions addressed, as well as the different actors intervening in urban food waste management. Finally, it identifies direct and indirect links with the Sustainable Development Goals, showing the role that cities can play in achieving the targets of the UN 2030 Agenda. Full article
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