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Article

Supply Risk Considerations for the Elements in Nickel-Based Superalloys

1
Resource Lab, University of Augsburg, Universitaetsstr. 16, 86159 Augsburg, Germany
2
Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
3
Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Resources 2020, 9(9), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090106
Received: 20 July 2020 / Revised: 20 August 2020 / Accepted: 26 August 2020 / Published: 31 August 2020
Nickel-based superalloys contain various elements which are added in order to make the alloys more resistant to thermal and mechanical stress and to the adverse operating environments in jet engines. In particular, higher combustion temperatures in the gas turbine are important, since they result in higher fuel efficiency and thus in lower CO2 emissions. In this paper, a semi-quantitative assessment scheme is used to evaluate the relative supply risks associated with elements contained in various Ni-based superalloys: aluminium, titanium, chromium, iron, cobalt, niobium, molybdenum, ruthenium, tantalum, tungsten, and rhenium. Twelve indicators on the elemental level and four aggregation methods are applied in order to obtain the supply risk at the alloy level. The supply risks for the elements rhenium, molybdenum and cobalt are found to be the highest. For three of the aggregation schemes, the spread in supply risk values for the different alloy types (as characterized by chemical composition and the endurance temperature) is generally narrow. The fourth, namely the cost-share’ aggregation scheme, gives rise to a broader distribution of supply risk values. This is mainly due to the introduction of rhenium as a component starting with second-generation single crystal alloys. The resulting higher supply risk appears, however, to be acceptable for jet engine applications due to the higher temperatures these alloys can endure. View Full-Text
Keywords: superalloy; rhenium; turbine; supply risk; metal; single-crystal superalloy; rhenium; turbine; supply risk; metal; single-crystal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Helbig, C.; Bradshaw, A.M.; Thorenz, A.; Tuma, A. Supply Risk Considerations for the Elements in Nickel-Based Superalloys. Resources 2020, 9, 106. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090106

AMA Style

Helbig C, Bradshaw AM, Thorenz A, Tuma A. Supply Risk Considerations for the Elements in Nickel-Based Superalloys. Resources. 2020; 9(9):106. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090106

Chicago/Turabian Style

Helbig, Christoph, Alex M. Bradshaw, Andrea Thorenz, and Axel Tuma. 2020. "Supply Risk Considerations for the Elements in Nickel-Based Superalloys" Resources 9, no. 9: 106. https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9090106

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