The chestnut tree has characterised the social history of the Italian hills and mountains. However, in recent years, this resource has been abandoned because of the change in socio-economic needs. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) To give an overview of this resource, assessing the strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats of the chestnut tree through the use of the SWOT methodology; (ii) to provide action strategies for resource valorisation, in accordance with the SDGs set out in the UN 2030 Agenda, by using the TOWS methodology. Our results suggest four strategies, specifically; ‘resource-based’, ‘network-based’, ‘policy-based’ and ‘market-based’, capable of valorising the resource from environmental, economic and societal points of view. The active management of chestnut forests, together with the development of a value chain can guarantee sustainable production, technological and process innovation and could empower companies to face global markets in a more competitive way and lead to the creation of high value-added products, generating a strong economic and social engine for the revival of the sector. Moreover, the commitment of the private sector to the reorganisation of the supply chain must also be accompanied by coherent public policy action. This is essential for the adoption of plans and programmes consistent with sustainable development objectives, ensuring their prioritisation and implementation.
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