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Resources, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2021) – 7 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In the last few decades, the urban areas of the Simeto River Valley, in Sicily (Italy), have been repeatedly hit by intense rainfall events, leading to pluvial flooding. Participative actions have promoted more sustainable management of stormwater, which has also been supported by European Commission funds. Among these actions, the LIFE SimetoRES project aims to raise awareness against climate change and related urban flooding problems. This issue of Resources presents the interesting results of a survey—involving more than 1000 respondents from 11 municipalities—showing that raising concern about climate change may not be sufficient enough in improving risk preparedness. View this paper
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26 pages, 2027 KiB  
Article
How to Identify Potentials and Barriers of Raw Materials Recovery from Tailings? Part I: A UNFC-Compliant Screening Approach for Site Selection
by Rudolf Suppes and Soraya Heuss-Aßbichler
Resources 2021, 10(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10030026 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3260
Abstract
Mapping the raw material (RM) potential of anthropogenic RMs, such as tailings, requires a comprehensive assessment and classification. However, a simple procedure to quickly screen for potentially viable RMs recovery projects similar to reconnaissance exploration of natural mineral RMs is missing. In this [...] Read more.
Mapping the raw material (RM) potential of anthropogenic RMs, such as tailings, requires a comprehensive assessment and classification. However, a simple procedure to quickly screen for potentially viable RMs recovery projects similar to reconnaissance exploration of natural mineral RMs is missing. In this article, a quick and efficient approach to systematically screen tailings storage facilities (TSFs) is presented to evaluate if a particular TSF meets the criteria to be assessed in a more advanced study including costly on-site exploration. Based on aspects related to a TSF’s contents, physical structure, surroundings, potential environmental and social impacts, and potentially affected stakeholders, it guides its user in compiling the information at local scale in a structured manner compliant with the United Nations Framework Classification for Resources (UNFC). The test application to the TSF Bollrich (Germany), situated in a complex environment close to various stakeholders, demonstrates that a quick and remote assessment with publicly accessible information is possible. Since an assessment of tailings under conventional classification codes from the primary mining industry neglects relevant aspects, it is concluded that tailings should be considered as anthropogenic RMs. The developed screening approach can help to create a TSF inventory which captures project potentials and barriers comprehensively. Full article
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26 pages, 6924 KiB  
Article
Worry about Climate Change and Urban Flooding Risk Preparedness in Southern Italy: A Survey in the Simeto River Valley (Sicily, Italy)
by Paola Nanni, David J. Peres, Rosaria E. Musumeci and Antonino Cancelliere
Resources 2021, 10(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10030025 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3773
Abstract
Intensive urbanization and related increase of impervious surfaces, causes negative impacts on the hydrological cycle, amplifying the risk of urban floods. These impacts can get even worse due to potential climate change impacts. The urban areas of the Simeto River Valley (SRV), the [...] Read more.
Intensive urbanization and related increase of impervious surfaces, causes negative impacts on the hydrological cycle, amplifying the risk of urban floods. These impacts can get even worse due to potential climate change impacts. The urban areas of the Simeto River Valley (SRV), the largest river valley in Sicily (Italy), have been repeatedly hit by intense rainfall events in the last decades that lead to urban flooding, causing several damages and, in some instances, threats to population. In this paper, we present the results of a 10-question survey on climate change and risk perception in 11 municipalities of the SRV carried out within the activities of the LIFE project SimetoRES, which allowed to collect 1143 feedbacks from the residents. The survey investigated: (a) the level of worry about climate change in relation to extreme storms, (b) elements of urban flooding risk preparedness: the direct experience of the residents during heavy rain events, their trust in a civil protection regional alert system, and their knowledge of the correct behavior in case of flood, and (c) the willingness of citizens to implement sustainable drainage actions for climate change adaptation in their own municipality and real estates. The results show that more than 52% of citizens has inadequate knowledge of the correct behavior during flooding events and only 30% of them feel responsible for mitigation of flooding risk. There is a modest willingness by the population to support the construction of sustainable urban drainage infrastructures. A statistical cross-analysis of the answers to the different questions, based on contingency matrices and conditional frequencies, has shown that a greater worry about climate change has no significant impact either on the behavior of people in dangerous situations occurring during flooding events or on the willingness to support financially sustainable solutions. These results suggest that to build a higher worry about climate change and related urban flooding risk is not sufficient to have better preparedness, and that more direct educative actions are necessary in the area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Extreme Hydrometeorological Events)
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14 pages, 7032 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Nature-Based Solutions on Pluvial Flood Hazard Mitigation: The Case Study of the City of Eindhoven (The Netherlands)
by Sandra Costa, Rik Peters, Ricardo Martins, Luuk Postmes, Jan Jacob Keizer and Peter Roebeling
Resources 2021, 10(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10030024 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5960
Abstract
Urbanization leads to changes in the surface cover that alter the hydrological cycle of cities, particularly by increasing the impervious area and, thereby, reducing the interception, storage and infiltration capacity of rainwater. Nature-based solutions (NBS) can contribute to flood risk mitigation in urbanized [...] Read more.
Urbanization leads to changes in the surface cover that alter the hydrological cycle of cities, particularly by increasing the impervious area and, thereby, reducing the interception, storage and infiltration capacity of rainwater. Nature-based solutions (NBS) can contribute to flood risk mitigation in urbanized areas by restoring hydrological functions. However, the effects of NBS on flood risk mitigation are complex and can differ substantially with the type of the NBS. Therefore, the effectiveness of NBS at the urban catchment scale is still subject to much debate, especially at the scale of urban catchments. In this study, the effects of different NBS on urban flood mitigation were evaluated for the city of Eindhoven in The Netherlands, as it has a history of urban flood events. To this end, various NBS scenarios were defined by municipal stakeholders and their impacts modelled with the numerical model Infoworks ICM. This was done for design storms with short, medium and long return periods (5, 10 and 100 years). Overall, the simulated NBS were effective in flood risk mitigation, reducing the flooded area as well as flood depth. The effectiveness of the individual NBS scenarios, however, depended strongly on the location and extension of the NBS, as well as on storm intensity. The effectiveness tended to increase with the increase in NBS surface area, while it tended to decrease with increasing storm intensity and, hence, return period. The NBS solution increasing street water storage was revealed to be more effective than those involving green car parks and green roofs. This study showed that numerical flooding models can be useful tools to assess the effects of NBS to reduce flood extent, water depth and/or velocity, providing insights that can support city planners to design and compare alternative strategies and plans for urban flood risk mitigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-based Solutions for Urban Global Change Adaptation)
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23 pages, 12869 KiB  
Article
Hydrogeochemical Characterization as a Tool to Recognize “Masked Geothermal Waters” in Bahía Concepción, Mexico
by Pablo Hernández-Morales, Jobst Wurl, Carlos Green-Ruiz and Diego Morata
Resources 2021, 10(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10030023 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2474
Abstract
Geo-thermalism has been widely recognized on the Baja California Peninsula, especially during the last decade. The current research, carried out on Bahia Concepcion, evidences the existence of geothermal springs, which get recharged mainly by groundwater and seawater. The groundwater can be characterized as [...] Read more.
Geo-thermalism has been widely recognized on the Baja California Peninsula, especially during the last decade. The current research, carried out on Bahia Concepcion, evidences the existence of geothermal springs, which get recharged mainly by groundwater and seawater. The groundwater can be characterized as Na+-Cl and Na+-HCO3 type, with a pH value close to neutrality. The slightly more acidic thermal sites presented temperatures between 32 °C and 59 °C at the surface. Based on the relationships of the Cl and Br, as well as the B/Cl, and Br/Cl ratios, seawater was recognized as the main source of salinity. The spatial distribution is explained directly through marine intrusion, or via sprays and aerosols within the rainwater. Seawater ratios in thermal springs varied from 62% to 83%, corresponding mainly to shallow inflow, but seawater inputs into the deep thermal reservoir were also recognized. Temperatures in the geothermal deep reservoir were inferred from 114 to 209 °C, calculated through the SiO2 and Na+-K+ geothermometers. In addition to previously reported thermal sites at Bahía Concepción, and based on their elevated temperatures, two new sites were identified. Another five springs do not fulfill the commonly used definition, based on differential temperature, but show the typical hydrogeochemical signature of thermal water. A new approach to identify this low-temperature geothermal-influenced spring water by its hydrogeochemical composition is presented, for which the term “Masked Geothermal Waters” (MGW) is introduced. Our findings increase the area of the geothermal anomaly and, therefore, the potential of geothermal resources. The approach proposed in this research will also be useful to identify more MGW in other coastal areas. Full article
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18 pages, 462 KiB  
Article
Building Exploitation Routines in the Circular Supply Chain to Obtain Radical Innovations
by Sara Alonso-Muñoz, Rocío González-Sánchez, Cristina Siligardi and Fernando Enrique García-Muiña
Resources 2021, 10(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10030022 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3373
Abstract
The adaptation of the supply chain makes it an effective tool in the management of a circular economy, as it allows aspects of sustainability and regeneration to be incorporated into production. However, empirical evidence is still insufficient. In addition, the use of absorptive [...] Read more.
The adaptation of the supply chain makes it an effective tool in the management of a circular economy, as it allows aspects of sustainability and regeneration to be incorporated into production. However, empirical evidence is still insufficient. In addition, the use of absorptive capacity theory provides a convenient context model that is adapted to the knowledge management required for the application of circularity principles. To study in depth the functioning of the circular supply chain, we use the dimension of exploitation of absorptive capacity, distinguishing between routines that allow adaptation to new production needs (technological knowledge) and new commercial needs (market knowledge). The empirical study was conducted on a sample of 9612 companies, divided into three levels of technology intensity manufacturing, from the PITEC panel using multivariate models. The results show that the operating routines associated with the use of production and logistics technologies developed in a circular fashion favor the development of new products. Similarly, a bidirectional knowledge flow is necessary. The first flow is toward the company with practices that allow a better understanding of the customer and their needs in the framework of the circular economy. The second flow would be toward customers, who need to be informed and educated through various marketing and communication activities to adapt their behavior to the principles of circularity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Construction Supply Chain Management for Circular Economy)
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16 pages, 2306 KiB  
Article
Is the Microfiltration Process Suitable as a Method of Removing Suspended Solids from Rainwater?
by Karolina Fitobór and Bernard Quant
Resources 2021, 10(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10030021 - 02 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2831
Abstract
Due to climate change and anthropogenic pressure, freshwater availability is declining in areas where it has not been noticeable so far. As a result, the demands for alternative sources of safe drinking water and effective methods of purification are growing. A solution worth [...] Read more.
Due to climate change and anthropogenic pressure, freshwater availability is declining in areas where it has not been noticeable so far. As a result, the demands for alternative sources of safe drinking water and effective methods of purification are growing. A solution worth considering is the treatment of rainwater by microfiltration. This study presents the results of selected analyses of rainwater runoff, collected from the roof surface of individual households equipped with the rainwater harvesting system. The method of rainwater management and research location (rural area) influenced the low content of suspended substances (TSS < 0.02 mg/L) and turbidity (< 4 NTU). Microfiltration allowed for the further removal of suspension particles with sizes larger than 0.45 μm and with efficiency greater than 60%. Granulometric analysis indicated that physical properties of suspended particles vary with the season and weather. During spring, particles with an average size of 500 μm predominated, while in autumn particles were much smaller (10 μm). However, Silt Density Index measurements confirmed that even a small amount of suspended solids can contribute to the fouling of membranes (SDI > 5). Therefore, rainwater cannot be purified by microfiltration without an appropriate pretreatment. Full article
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14 pages, 2362 KiB  
Article
Risk-Based Methodology for Determining Priority Directions for Improving Occupational Safety in the Mining Industry of the Arctic Zone
by Semyon Gendler and Elizaveta Prokhorova
Resources 2021, 10(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10030020 - 01 Mar 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3244
Abstract
Over the past 10 years, the mining industry of Russia has seen a greater than three-fold decrease in injury rates, thanks to the successful implementation of innovative labor safety technologies. Despite this, injury levels remain unacceptably high compared to the leading mining countries, [...] Read more.
Over the past 10 years, the mining industry of Russia has seen a greater than three-fold decrease in injury rates, thanks to the successful implementation of innovative labor safety technologies. Despite this, injury levels remain unacceptably high compared to the leading mining countries, which results in increased mining costs. For the mining areas of the Arctic Zone—unlike other regions located in areas with a more favorable climate—the injury rates are influenced not only by the underground labor conditions, but also by the adverse environmental factors. For the Russian Arctic zone, the overall injury risk is proposed to be calculated as the combined impact of occupational and background risk. In this article, we have performed correlation analysis of the overall injury risks in regions of the Arctic zone and regions with favorable climate conditions. Using the Kirov branch of “Apatit”, Joint-stock company (JSC) as an example, we have calculated the risks related specifically to occupational injury rates. We have constructed the relative injury risks and their changes over time and have developed a “basic injury rate matrix” that makes it possible to visualize the results of the comparative analysis of the injury rates on the company’s production sites and to determine priority avenues for improving the occupational safety and lowering the injury rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resource Provision of the Sustainable Development under Global Shocks)
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