Special Issue "Analysis of Extreme Hydrometeorological Events"

A special issue of Resources (ISSN 2079-9276).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Brunella Bonaccorso
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, University of Messina, Villaggio S. Agata, 98166 Messina, Italy
Interests: hydrology; drough; extreme rainfall; statistics methods
Dr. David J. Peres
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania (Italy)
Interests: hydrology; landslides; early warning systems; risk awareness; prediction performance and uncertainty; climate change; hazard and susceptibility mapping

Special Issue Information

Extreme hydrometeorological events (e.g., storms, pluvial, fluvial and coastal floods, droughts, and landslides), causing severe impacts in terms of injuries, casualties, and socio-economic losses, are being reported more and more frequently all over the world. It is common for these events to have cascading effects that can span from slope instability to ecological disasters, involving infrastructural and service disruptions.

Climate variability and anthropogenic changes (e.g., population increase, urbanization, and environmental degradation) play an important role in amplifying the impacts of these events on a growing number of people. Therefore, understanding the dynamics inherent to these phenomena, improving early warning systems, and developing more coordinated disaster risk reduction strategies are fundamental to properly managing the associated risk, reducing vulnerabilities, and building the societal resilience to natural disasters.

The aim of this Special Issue is to showcase studies addressing challenges in monitoring, modeling, forecasting, and assessing the impacts of hydrometeorological hazards. We welcome both research papers and technical notes on the analysis of hydrometeorological extreme events at local, catchment, and global scales.

Studies may focus on: (i) the description of recent relevant extreme hydrometeorological events, accompanied by analyses of spatio-temporal features and trends; (ii) the estimation and projection of the impacts of climate change and land-use transformations on the occurrence and severity of hydrometeorological extreme events, with associated uncertainties; (iii) the integration of remote sensing data or climate forecasts and models to provide timely warnings or reliable predictions; (iv) the use of advanced statistical methodologies to characterize extreme hydrometeorological events, among others.

Dr. Brunella Bonaccorso
Dr. David J. Peres
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Resources is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hydrometeorological hazards
  • monitoring and early warning
  • modelling
  • forecasting
  • risk analysis
  • cascading effects

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Urban Population Flood Impact Applied to a Warsaw Scenario
Resources 2021, 10(6), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10060062 - 14 Jun 2021
Viewed by 810
Abstract
The provision of detailed information on the impact of potential fluvial floods on urban population health, quantifying the impact magnitude and supplying the location of areas of the highest risk to human health, is an important step towards (a) improvement of sustainable measures [...] Read more.
The provision of detailed information on the impact of potential fluvial floods on urban population health, quantifying the impact magnitude and supplying the location of areas of the highest risk to human health, is an important step towards (a) improvement of sustainable measures to minimise the impact of floods, e.g., by including flood risk as a design parameter for urban planning, and (b) increase public awareness of flood risks. The three new measures of the impact of floods on the urban population have been proposed, considering both deterministic and stochastic aspects. The impact was determined in relation to the building’s function, the number of residents, the probability of flood occurrence and the likely floodwater inundation level. The building capacity concept was introduced to model population data at the building level. Its proposed estimation method, an offshoot of the volumetric method, has proved to be successful in the challenging study area, characterised by a high diversity of buildings in terms of their function, size and density. The results show that 2.35% of buildings and over 122,000 people may be affected by 500-year flooding. However, the foreseen magnitude of flood impact on human health is moderate, i.e., on average ten persons per residential building over the 80% of flood risk zones. Such results are attributed to the low inundation depth, i.e., below 1 m. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Extreme Hydrometeorological Events)
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Article
Worry about Climate Change and Urban Flooding Risk Preparedness in Southern Italy: A Survey in the Simeto River Valley (Sicily, Italy)
Resources 2021, 10(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10030025 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
Intensive urbanization and related increase of impervious surfaces, causes negative impacts on the hydrological cycle, amplifying the risk of urban floods. These impacts can get even worse due to potential climate change impacts. The urban areas of the Simeto River Valley (SRV), the [...] Read more.
Intensive urbanization and related increase of impervious surfaces, causes negative impacts on the hydrological cycle, amplifying the risk of urban floods. These impacts can get even worse due to potential climate change impacts. The urban areas of the Simeto River Valley (SRV), the largest river valley in Sicily (Italy), have been repeatedly hit by intense rainfall events in the last decades that lead to urban flooding, causing several damages and, in some instances, threats to population. In this paper, we present the results of a 10-question survey on climate change and risk perception in 11 municipalities of the SRV carried out within the activities of the LIFE project SimetoRES, which allowed to collect 1143 feedbacks from the residents. The survey investigated: (a) the level of worry about climate change in relation to extreme storms, (b) elements of urban flooding risk preparedness: the direct experience of the residents during heavy rain events, their trust in a civil protection regional alert system, and their knowledge of the correct behavior in case of flood, and (c) the willingness of citizens to implement sustainable drainage actions for climate change adaptation in their own municipality and real estates. The results show that more than 52% of citizens has inadequate knowledge of the correct behavior during flooding events and only 30% of them feel responsible for mitigation of flooding risk. There is a modest willingness by the population to support the construction of sustainable urban drainage infrastructures. A statistical cross-analysis of the answers to the different questions, based on contingency matrices and conditional frequencies, has shown that a greater worry about climate change has no significant impact either on the behavior of people in dangerous situations occurring during flooding events or on the willingness to support financially sustainable solutions. These results suggest that to build a higher worry about climate change and related urban flooding risk is not sufficient to have better preparedness, and that more direct educative actions are necessary in the area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Extreme Hydrometeorological Events)
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Article
The Flash Floods Risk in the Local Spatial Planning (Case Study: Lublin Upland, E Poland)
Resources 2021, 10(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10020014 - 11 Feb 2021
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Flash floods pose a significant threat to humans but the state of our knowledge on the occurrence and related risk of such phenomena is insufficient. At the same time, many climate change models predict that extreme rainfall events will occur more and more [...] Read more.
Flash floods pose a significant threat to humans but the state of our knowledge on the occurrence and related risk of such phenomena is insufficient. At the same time, many climate change models predict that extreme rainfall events will occur more and more frequently. Identifying areas susceptible to flash floods is more complicated that in the case of floods occurring in the valley bottoms of large rivers. Flood risk maps in Poland have not been developed for small catchments. The study objective was to assess whether the threat related to flash floods is taken into account in the spatial planning system of municipalities. Studies were conducted in the Lublin Upland, E Poland (an area of about 7200 km2). A preliminary assessment of susceptibility of 369 catchments to flash floods was carried out in a GIS environment using multi criteria analysis. The susceptible catchments cover about 30% of the area. Existing planning documents, flood hazard and flood risk maps were analyzed for municipalities located in the catchments with highest susceptibility to this phenomenon. Our results show that flash flood risk is usually not recognized at the level of local governments even when it is significant. Local planning documents do not take into account the existence of this threat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Extreme Hydrometeorological Events)
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Article
A Short-Time Repeat TLS Survey to Estimate Rates of Glacier Retreat and Patterns of Forefield Development (Case Study: Scottbreen, SW Svalbard)
Resources 2021, 10(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10010002 - 25 Dec 2020
Viewed by 919
Abstract
The study presents findings from comparative analyses of high-resolution differential digital elevation models (DEM of Difference—DoD) based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) surveys. The research was conducted on the 0.2 km2 Scottbreen valley glacier foreland located in the north-western part of Wedel-Jarlsberg [...] Read more.
The study presents findings from comparative analyses of high-resolution differential digital elevation models (DEM of Difference—DoD) based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) surveys. The research was conducted on the 0.2 km2 Scottbreen valley glacier foreland located in the north-western part of Wedel-Jarlsberg Land (Svalbard) in August of 2013. The comparison between DTMs at 3-week intervals made it possible to identify erosion and depositional areas, as well as the volume of the melting glacier’s terminus. It showed a considerable recession rate of the Scottbreen (20 m year−1) while its forefield was being reshaped by the proglacial Scott River. A study area of 205,389 m2, 31% of which is occupied by the glacier (clear ice zone), was included in the repeated TLS survey, which was performed from five permanent scan station points (registered on the basis of five target points—TP). The resultant point clouds with a density ranging from 91 to 336 pt m−2 were converted into DEMs (at a spacing of 0.1 m). They were then put together to identify erosion and depositional areas using Geomorphic Change Detection Software (GCD). During the 3-week interval, the retreat of the glacier’s snout ranged from 3 to 9 m (mean of 5 m), which was accompanied by an average lowering of the surface by up to 0.86 m (±0.03 m) and a decrease of ice volume by 53,475 m3 (±1761 m3). The deglaciated area increased by 4549 m2 (~5%) as a result of the recession, which resulted in an extensive reshaping of the recently deglaciated area. The DEM of Difference (DoD) analyses showed the following: (i) lowering of the glacial surface by melting and ii) predominance of deposition in the glacier’s marginal zone. In fact, 17,570 m3 (±1172 m3) of sediments were deposited in the glacier forefield (41,451 m2). Also, the erosion of sediment layers having a volume of 11,974 m3 (±1313 m3) covered an area equal to 46,429 m2 (53%). This occurrence was primarily based on the washing away of banks and the deepening of proglacial stream beds, as well as the washing away of the lower parts of moraine hillocks and outwash fans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Extreme Hydrometeorological Events)
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Article
Hydrological Response to Drought Occurrences in a Brazilian Savanna Basin
Resources 2020, 9(10), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9100123 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
The Brazilian savanna is one of the world’s 25 biodiversity hotspots. However, droughts can decrease water availability in this biome. This study aimed to analyze meteorological and hydrological droughts and their influence on the hydrological behavior in a Brazilian savanna basin. For that, [...] Read more.
The Brazilian savanna is one of the world’s 25 biodiversity hotspots. However, droughts can decrease water availability in this biome. This study aimed to analyze meteorological and hydrological droughts and their influence on the hydrological behavior in a Brazilian savanna basin. For that, hydrological indicators were calculated to analyze the hydrological behavior in the Pandeiros river basin (PRB). The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI) were calculated for the hydrological year and rainy season from 1977 to 2018. The propagation of the meteorological to hydrological drought was studied by means of the Pearson coefficient of correlation between the SSI and SPI with 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12-month lags. A longer meteorological drought was observed from 2014/15 to 2017/18 which caused a reduction in the groundwater recharge, besides potentially reducing the ecological functions of the Brazilian savanna. This drought was intensified by an increase in the average annual temperature, resulting in the increasing of evapotranspiration. Regarding drought propagation, there is no significant difference among the coefficients of correlation from 0 to 6-month lags. For the lags of 9 and 12 months, the correlation decreases, indicating a greater influence of the current rainy season than the past ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Extreme Hydrometeorological Events)
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Article
The Soil Moisture during Dry Spells Model and Its Verification
Resources 2020, 9(7), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9070085 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1655
Abstract
The objective of this study was the development and verification of a model of soil moisture decrease during dry spells—SMDS. The analyses were based on diurnal information of the occurrence of atmospheric precipitation and diurnal values of soil moisture under a bare soil [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was the development and verification of a model of soil moisture decrease during dry spells—SMDS. The analyses were based on diurnal information of the occurrence of atmospheric precipitation and diurnal values of soil moisture under a bare soil surface, covering the period of 2003–2019, from May until October. A decreasing exponential trend was used for the description of the rate of moisture decrease in six layers of the soil profile during dry spells. The least squares method was used to determine, for each dry spell and soil depth, the value of exponent α , which described the rate of soil moisture decrease. Data from the years 2003–2015 were used for the identification of parameter α of the model for each of the layers separately, while data from 2016–2019 were used for model verification. The mean relative error between moisture values measured in 2016–2019 and the calculated values was 3.8%, and accepted as sufficiently accurate. It was found that the error of model fitting decreased with soil layer depth, from 8.1% for the surface layer to 1.0% for the deepest layer, while increasing with the duration of the dry spell at the rate of 0.5%/day. The universality of the model was also confirmed by verification made with the use of the results of soil moisture measurements conducted in the years 2009–2019 at two other independent locations. However, it should be emphasized that in the case of the surface horizon of soil, for which the process of soil drying is a function of factors occurring in the atmosphere, the developed model may have limited application and the obtained results may be affected by greater errors. The adoption of calculated values of coefficient α as characteristic for the individual measurement depths allowed calculation of the predicted values of moisture as a function of the duration of a dry spell, relative to the initial moisture level adopted as 100%. The exponential form of the trend of soil moisture changes in time adopted for the analysis also allowed calculation of the duration of a hypothetical dry spell t, after which soil moisture at a given depth drops from the known initial moisture θ0 to the predicted moisture θ. This is an important finding from the perspective of land use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Extreme Hydrometeorological Events)
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