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Preservation of Historical Stone Surfaces by TiO2 Nanocoatings
Open AccessArticle

Nano-TiO2 Coatings for Limestone: Which Sustainability for Cultural Heritage?

Department of Sciences and Engineering Methods, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Amendola, 2, 42100 Reggio Emilia, Italy
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze, 181/A, 43124 Parma, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Enrico Quagliarini
Coatings 2015, 5(3), 232-245;
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 15 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 25 June 2015
PDF [825 KB, uploaded 25 June 2015]


The present study concerns the ecodesign of the application of an aqueous nano-TiO2 suspension on a porous limestone used in historical monuments with a spraying system through the LCA methodology, in order to define the most critical aspects of the process and to try to minimize the environmental burden during the implementation of the application process. Because of the limited knowledge currently available regarding the effects that nano-TiO2 may have on the environment or human health, a precautionary approach has been adopted in all life cycle steps, to assess the risk of having nanoparticle emissions from a nanocoating surface and for workers, who can come into contact with or inhale the nanoparticles released. The energy-intensive operations in the application stage greatly contribute to the total environmental damage, while the impact generated by nanoparticle emissions during the use phase contributes 2.9%. In addition, the self-cleaning and de-polluting transparent titania coating produces a benefit of −0.13%. View Full-Text
Keywords: life cycle assessment; nano-TiO2 coatings; limestone; cultural heritage life cycle assessment; nano-TiO2 coatings; limestone; cultural heritage

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ferrari, A.M.; Pini, M.; Neri, P.; Bondioli, F. Nano-TiO2 Coatings for Limestone: Which Sustainability for Cultural Heritage? Coatings 2015, 5, 232-245.

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