Special Issue "Self-Cleaning, Biocide and Depolluting Coatings for Architectural and Archaeological Heritage"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Enrico Quagliarini Website E-Mail
Department of Civil and Building Engineering and Architecture, Polytechnic University of Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
Interests: application and assessment of smart (self-cleaning, depolluting and biocide) coatings on building materials and building components, with particular emphasis on architectural and archaeological Heritage

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Modern surface engineering could play a key role in protecting, conserving and enjoying our Architectural and Archaeological Heritage, providing original and unexpected solutions. Self-cleaning and biocide coatings could improve the preservation of ancient and historical surfaces, both for the maintenance of their original aesthetic aspect and for the easier removal of external degrading agents, limiting cleaning and conservation actions, and thus reducing costs. Besides, while environmental pollution is constantly increasing, nano-structured coatings could be a promising way to accelerate the degradation of many organic and inorganic contaminants, developing air-purifying features and so improving the fruition of the Architectural and Archaeological environment for inhabitants and tourists. Despite these potential performances of coatings and their wider investigation in the current building industry, their application in the field of Architectural and Archaeological Heritage is still rather limited. In this way, by including all types of ancient and historical substrates and coating technologies, this Special Issue aims to provide better comparisons and assessments of the application of different coating technologies on different ancient and historical substrates for developing self-cleaning, biocide and depolluting properties.

Prof. Dr. Enrico Quagliarini
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • architectural and archaeological heritage

  • self-cleaning coating

  • biocide coating

  • de-polluting coating

  • nano-coating

  • ancient and historic materials

  • aesthetic changes

  • durability

  • titanium dioxide

  • photocatalysis

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
On the Modelling of Algal Biofouling Growth on Nano-TiO2 Coated and Uncoated Limestones and Sandstones
Coatings 2018, 8(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8020054 - 01 Feb 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Algal biofouling on archaeological and historic materials, as well as in modern building façade, is a common phenomenon that occurs when microorganisms of various nature adhere to the material, forming biological stains and patinas. It can significantly deteriorate the aesthetic and even mechanical [...] Read more.
Algal biofouling on archaeological and historic materials, as well as in modern building façade, is a common phenomenon that occurs when microorganisms of various nature adhere to the material, forming biological stains and patinas. It can significantly deteriorate the aesthetic and even mechanical quality of historic and archaeological artifacts. Thus, predicting the colonization progress of algae on treated and untreated materials can be helpful to establish appropriate schedules and methods of maintenance. In this way, the aim of this research was to modelize the algal colonization on nano-TiO2 coated and uncoated stone surfaces, usually found in historic and archaeological artifacts, by following Avrami’s theory. Particular attention was paid on correlating the model with some properties of the substrate, like roughness and porosity. Biofouling was tested on two sandstones and three limestone with different intrinsic characteristics (porosity, roughness) by means of an accelerated lab-scale test. A suspension of green alga Chlorella mirabilis and cyanobacteria Chroococcidiopsis fissurarum was used as biofouling. Digital image analysis was carried out in order to find the attachment rate and the growth of algal spots. Results show that the attachment specific rate increased linearly with time, and the assumption of a constant growth rate was acceptable. A good agreement between the simulation and the experimental results was obtained with a maximum error of 0.59%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Self-Cleaning Mineral Paint for Application in Architectural Heritage
Coatings 2016, 6(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings6040048 - 18 Oct 2016
Cited by 6
Abstract
A mineral silicate paint has been developed for architectural heritage. To enhance durability, any type of organic additive has been avoided. Potassium silicate was the binder agent intended to give strong adherence and durability to stone and concretes. Incorporation of mainly anatase titanium [...] Read more.
A mineral silicate paint has been developed for architectural heritage. To enhance durability, any type of organic additive has been avoided. Potassium silicate was the binder agent intended to give strong adherence and durability to stone and concretes. Incorporation of mainly anatase titanium dioxide was intended to act both as a white, bright pigment and as a photocatalyst. Reflectivity analyses on the paint in the visible-to-near infrared wavelength region show high solar heat reflection. The self-cleaning activity of the mineral paint was evaluated by the degradation of organic dyes under solar light irradiation. Anatase titania was effective in decomposing organic and airborne pollutants with the solar radiation. The optical properties and self-cleaning activity were compared with the organic binder-based paints and commercial paints. Developed paints possess high stability: since they contain only inorganic components that do not fade with exposure to solar radiation, photocatalytic self-cleaning capability further enhances such stability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biofouling Prevention of Ancient Brick Surfaces by TiO2-Based Nano-Coatings
Coatings 2015, 5(3), 357-365; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5030357 - 28 Jul 2015
Cited by 7
Abstract
Brick constitutes a significant part of the construction materials used in historic buildings around the world. This material was used in Architectural Heritage for structural scope, and even for building envelopes. Thus, components made of clay brick were subjected to weathering for a [...] Read more.
Brick constitutes a significant part of the construction materials used in historic buildings around the world. This material was used in Architectural Heritage for structural scope, and even for building envelopes. Thus, components made of clay brick were subjected to weathering for a long time, and this causes their deterioration. One of the most important causes for deterioration is biodeterioration caused by algae and cyanobacteria. It compromises the aesthetical properties, and, at a later stage, the integrity of the elements. In fact, traditional products used for the remediation/prevention of biofouling do not ensure long-term protection, and they need re-application over time. The use of nanotechnology, especially the use of photocatalytic products for the prevention of organic contamination of building façades is increasing. In this study, TiO2-based photocatalytic nano-coatings were applied to ancient brick, and its efficiency towards biofouling was studied. A composed suspension of algae and cyanobacteria was sprinkled on the bricks’ surface for a duration of twelve weeks. Digital Image Analysis and colorimetric measurements were carried out to evaluate algal growth on specimens’ surfaces. Results show that photocatalytic nano-coating was able to inhibit biofouling on bricks’ surfaces. In addition, substrata (their porosity and roughness) clearly influences the adhesion of algal cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nano-TiO2 Coatings for Limestone: Which Sustainability for Cultural Heritage?
Coatings 2015, 5(3), 232-245; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5030232 - 25 Jun 2015
Cited by 24
Abstract
The present study concerns the ecodesign of the application of an aqueous nano-TiO2 suspension on a porous limestone used in historical monuments with a spraying system through the LCA methodology, in order to define the most critical aspects of the process and [...] Read more.
The present study concerns the ecodesign of the application of an aqueous nano-TiO2 suspension on a porous limestone used in historical monuments with a spraying system through the LCA methodology, in order to define the most critical aspects of the process and to try to minimize the environmental burden during the implementation of the application process. Because of the limited knowledge currently available regarding the effects that nano-TiO2 may have on the environment or human health, a precautionary approach has been adopted in all life cycle steps, to assess the risk of having nanoparticle emissions from a nanocoating surface and for workers, who can come into contact with or inhale the nanoparticles released. The energy-intensive operations in the application stage greatly contribute to the total environmental damage, while the impact generated by nanoparticle emissions during the use phase contributes 2.9%. In addition, the self-cleaning and de-polluting transparent titania coating produces a benefit of −0.13%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preservation of Historical Stone Surfaces by TiO2 Nanocoatings
Coatings 2015, 5(2), 222-231; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings5020222 - 19 Jun 2015
Cited by 13
Abstract
We proposed the application of titanium dioxide (TiO2) for the preservation of historical (architectural, monumental, archaeological) stone surfaces. Solar light can activate the photocatalytic effect of TiO2 nanoparticles: heterogeneous photocatalysis is the key factor for the development of self-cleaning, depolluting [...] Read more.
We proposed the application of titanium dioxide (TiO2) for the preservation of historical (architectural, monumental, archaeological) stone surfaces. Solar light can activate the photocatalytic effect of TiO2 nanoparticles: heterogeneous photocatalysis is the key factor for the development of self-cleaning, depolluting and biocidal treatments able to photochemically degrade external damaging materials and prolong the durability of treated substrates, maintaining their original aspect and limiting ordinary cleaning activities. In this study, TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in an aqueous colloidal suspension were applied directly on travertine, a light-colored limestone, by spray-coating in order to obtain a nanometric film on stone samples. To assess the feasibility of use of TiO2, we studied the characteristics of the nanocoating-stone system by monitoring the microscopic features of the coatings, the aesthetical changes induced to coated surfaces and the self-cleaning efficiency. We also monitored the self-cleaning ability over time during an accelerated ageing process to evaluate the durability of TiO2-based treatments. We confirmed both compatibility and effectiveness of TiO2 coating in the short term, anyway its efficiency decreased after artificial ageing. Further studies are necessary to better evaluate and eventually improve the stability of self-cleaning efficiency over prolonged time for outdoor stone surfaces. Full article
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