Next Article in Journal
High Prevalence and Diversity of Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Including Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli CC648 Lineage in Rural and Urban Dogs in Northwest Spain
Next Article in Special Issue
Antibiotic Use in Low and Middle-Income Countries and the Challenges of Antimicrobial Resistance in Surgery
Previous Article in Journal
Spectrum and Antibiotic Resistance of Uropathogens in Romanian Females
Previous Article in Special Issue
Longitudinal Point Prevalence Survey of Antimicrobial Consumption in Russian Hospitals: Results of the Global-PPS Project
Review

Country Income Is Only One of the Tiles: The Global Journey of Antimicrobial Resistance among Humans, Animals, and Environment

1
Infectious Diseases Unit; Bolzano Central Hospital, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
2
Antimicrobial Stewardship Program; Bolzano Central Hospital, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
3
Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences (DIMEVET), University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna; Italy
4
Faculty of Science and Technology; Free University of Bolzano, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
5
Division of General Surgery, Macerata Hospital, 62100 Macerata; Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(8), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9080473
Received: 16 July 2020 / Revised: 25 July 2020 / Accepted: 29 July 2020 / Published: 1 August 2020
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most complex global health challenges today: decades of overuse and misuse in human medicine, animal health, agriculture, and dispersion into the environment have produced the dire consequence of infections to become progressively untreatable. Infection control and prevention (IPC) procedures, the reduction of overuse, and the misuse of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine are the cornerstones required to prevent the spreading of resistant bacteria. Purified drinking water and strongly improved sanitation even in remote areas would prevent the pollution from inadequate treatment of industrial, residential, and farm waste, as all these situations are expanding the resistome in the environment. The One Health concept addresses the interconnected relationships between human, animal, and environmental health as a whole: several countries and international agencies have now included a One Health Approach within their action plans to address AMR. Improved antimicrobial usage, coupled with regulation and policy, as well as integrated surveillance, infection control and prevention, along with antimicrobial stewardship, sanitation, and animal husbandry should all be integrated parts of any new action plan targeted to tackle AMR on the Earth. Since AMR is found in bacteria from humans, animals, and in the environment, we briefly summarize herein the current concepts of One Health as a global challenge to enable the continued use of antibiotics. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; One Health; environment; humans; animals; antibiotic resistance genes; water; antimicrobial stewardship antimicrobial resistance; One Health; environment; humans; animals; antibiotic resistance genes; water; antimicrobial stewardship
MDPI and ACS Style

Pieri, A.; Aschbacher, R.; Fasani, G.; Mariella, J.; Brusetti, L.; Pagani, E.; Sartelli, M.; Pagani, L. Country Income Is Only One of the Tiles: The Global Journey of Antimicrobial Resistance among Humans, Animals, and Environment. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 473. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9080473

AMA Style

Pieri A, Aschbacher R, Fasani G, Mariella J, Brusetti L, Pagani E, Sartelli M, Pagani L. Country Income Is Only One of the Tiles: The Global Journey of Antimicrobial Resistance among Humans, Animals, and Environment. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(8):473. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9080473

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pieri, Angela, Richard Aschbacher, Giada Fasani, Jole Mariella, Lorenzo Brusetti, Elisabetta Pagani, Massimo Sartelli, and Leonardo Pagani. 2020. "Country Income Is Only One of the Tiles: The Global Journey of Antimicrobial Resistance among Humans, Animals, and Environment" Antibiotics 9, no. 8: 473. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9080473

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop