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Open AccessArticle

Detection of Emerald Ash Borer Infestations in Living Green Ash by Noninvasive Electronic-Nose Analysis of Wood Volatiles

1
Pathology Department, Southern Hardwoods Laboratory, Southern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA
2
Arkansas Forest Resources Center, and College of Forestry, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Arkansas at Monticello, Monticello, AR 71656, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2019, 9(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9040123
Received: 17 September 2019 / Revised: 4 October 2019 / Accepted: 9 October 2019 / Published: 13 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noninvasive Early Disease Diagnosis)
The emerald ash borer (EAB) has been the most destructive and costly nonnative insect to threaten the health of ash (Fraxinus) species in North America for at least the past 25 years. The development of methods for detecting visually-hidden EAB galleries at early stages of infestation would provide a useful tool to more effectively facilitate the planning and implementation of targeted EAB pest-suppression and management activities. We tested the efficacy of using a dual-technology electronic-nose (e-nose)/gas chromatograph device as a means for detection of EAB infestations in green ash trees in different EAB-decline classes by analysis of VOC emissions in sapwood. We found significant differences in VOC profiles for trees from the four decline classes. The VOC composition, quantities, and types of volatile metabolites present in headspace volatiles varied considerably across sample types, and resulted in distinct e-nose smellprint patterns that were characteristic of each unique chemical composition. In addition, specific VOC metabolites were identified as potential healthy and EAB-infestation biomarkers, indicative of the health states of individual trees. Few significant differences in major bark phenolic compounds were found between ash decline classes using LC-MS. The e-nose was effective in discriminating between uninfested and EAB-infested trees based on sapwood VOC emissions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Agrilus planipennis; early tree-infestation detection; electronic nose (e-nose); plant-health biomarkers; insect-infestation biomarkers; sapwood; smellprint signatures; VOC-metabolites Agrilus planipennis; early tree-infestation detection; electronic nose (e-nose); plant-health biomarkers; insect-infestation biomarkers; sapwood; smellprint signatures; VOC-metabolites
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Wilson, A.D.; Forse, L.B.; Babst, B.A.; Bataineh, M.M. Detection of Emerald Ash Borer Infestations in Living Green Ash by Noninvasive Electronic-Nose Analysis of Wood Volatiles. Biosensors 2019, 9, 123.

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