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Droplets for Sampling and Transport of Chemical Signals in Biosensing: A Review

1
School of Engineering, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia; [email protected]
2
ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP), Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2019, 9(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9020080
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microfluidics for Biosensing and Diagnostics)
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Abstract

The chemical, temporal, and spatial resolution of chemical signals that are sampled and transported with continuous flow is limited because of Taylor dispersion. Droplets have been used to solve this problem by digitizing chemical signals into discrete segments that can be transported for a long distance or a long time without loss of chemical, temporal or spatial precision. In this review, we describe Taylor dispersion, sampling theory, and Laplace pressure, and give examples of sampling probes that have used droplets to sample or/and transport fluid from a continuous medium, such as cell culture or nerve tissue, for external analysis. The examples are categorized, as follows: (1) Aqueous-phase sampling with downstream droplet formation; (2) preformed droplets for sampling; and (3) droplets formed near the analyte source. Finally, strategies for downstream sample recovery for conventional analysis are described. View Full-Text
Keywords: microfluidic probe; droplet; sampling; Taylor dispersion microfluidic probe; droplet; sampling; Taylor dispersion
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Feng, S.; Shirani, E.; Inglis, D.W. Droplets for Sampling and Transport of Chemical Signals in Biosensing: A Review. Biosensors 2019, 9, 80.

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