Next Article in Journal
Droplets for Sampling and Transport of Chemical Signals in Biosensing: A Review
Previous Article in Journal
Silver-Based Plasmonic Nanoparticles for and Their Use in Biosensing
Previous Article in Special Issue
Specific and Generic Immunorecognition of Glycopeptide Antibiotics Promoted by Unique and Multiple Orientations of Hapten
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Noncompetitive Chromogenic Lateral-Flow Immunoassay for Simultaneous Detection of Microcystins and Nodularin

1
Molecular Biotechnology and Diagnostics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland
2
Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Palkalaiperur, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamilnadu, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2019, 9(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9020079
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme-linked Immunoassay)
  |  
PDF [2354 KB, uploaded 20 June 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Cyanobacterial blooms cause local and global health issues by contaminating surface waters. Microcystins and nodularins are cyclic cyanobacterial peptide toxins comprising numerous natural variants. Most of them are potent hepatotoxins, tumor promoters, and at least microcystin-LR is possibly carcinogenic. In drinking water, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the provisional guideline value of 1 µg/L for microcystin-LR. For water used for recreational activity, the guidance values for microcystin concentration varies mostly between 4–25 µg/L in different countries. Current immunoassays or lateral flow strips for microcystin/nodularin are based on indirect competitive method, which are generally more prone to sample interference and sometimes hard to interpret compared to two-site immunoassays. Simple, sensitive, and easy to interpret user-friendly methods for first line screening of microcystin/nodularin near water sources are needed for assessment of water quality and safety. We describe the development of a two-site sandwich format lateral-flow assay for the rapid detection of microcystins and nodularin-R. A unique antibody fragment capable of broadly recognizing immunocomplexes consisting of a capture antibody bound to microcystins/nodularin-R was used to develop the simple lateral flow immunoassay. The assay can visually detect the major hepatotoxins (microcystin-LR, -dmLR, -RR, -dmRR, -YR, -LY, -LF -LW, and nodularin-R) at and below the concentration of 4 µg/L. The signal is directly proportional to the concentration of the respective toxin, and the use of alkaline phosphatase activity offers a cost efficient alternative by eliminating the need of toxin conjugates or other labeling system. The easy to interpret assay has the potential to serve as a microcystins/nodularin screening tool for those involved in water quality monitoring such as municipal authorities, researchers, as well as general public concerned of bathing water quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: noncompetitive immunoassay; cyanotoxin; microcystin; nodularin; lateral flow noncompetitive immunoassay; cyanotoxin; microcystin; nodularin; lateral flow
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Akter, S.; Kustila, T.; Leivo, J.; Muralitharan, G.; Vehniäinen, M.; Lamminmäki, U. Noncompetitive Chromogenic Lateral-Flow Immunoassay for Simultaneous Detection of Microcystins and Nodularin. Biosensors 2019, 9, 79.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Biosensors EISSN 2079-6374 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top