Next Article in Journal
Probing Contaminant-Induced Alterations in Chlorophyll Fluorescence by AC-Dielectrophoresis-Based 2D-Algal Array
Next Article in Special Issue
The Use of Biosensors to Explore the Potential of Probiotic Strains to Reduce the SOS Response and Mutagenesis in Bacteria
Previous Article in Journal
Prolonged Corrosion Stability of a Microchip Sensor Implant during In Vivo Exposure
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessCommunication
Biosensors 2018, 8(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8010014

Self-Organized Nanostructure Modified Microelectrode for Sensitive Electrochemical Glutamate Detection in Stem Cells-Derived Brain Organoids

1
Centre for Neural Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3053, Australia
2
The Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
3
ARC Centre of Excellence for Integrative Brain Function, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
4
The Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
5
The Department of Anaesthesia & Pain Management, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC 3050, Australia
6
Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
7
Department of Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3050, Australia
8
Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, Centre for Molecular and Medical Bioscience, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 January 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 31 January 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro and Nanoscale Biosensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1970 KB, uploaded 5 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

Neurons release neurotransmitters such as glutamate to communicate with each other and to coordinate brain functioning. As increased glutamate release is indicative of neuronal maturation and activity, a system that can measure glutamate levels over time within the same tissue and/or culture system is highly advantageous for neurodevelopmental investigation. To address such challenges, we develop for the first time a convenient method to realize functionalized borosilicate glass capillaries with nanostructured texture as an electrochemical biosensor to detect glutamate release from cerebral organoids generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) that mimic various brain regions. The biosensor shows a clear catalytic activity toward the oxidation of glutamate with a sensitivity of 93 ± 9.5 nA·µM−1·cm−2. It was found that the enzyme-modified microelectrodes can detect glutamate in a wide linear range from 5 µM to 0.5 mM with a limit of detection (LOD) down to 5.6 ± 0.2 µM. Measurements were performed within the organoids at different time points and consistent results were obtained. This data demonstrates the reliability of the biosensor as well as its usefulness in measuring glutamate levels across time within the same culture system. View Full-Text
Keywords: microelectrodes; electrochemical biosensors; amperometry; glutamate; human embryonic stem cells; organoids microelectrodes; electrochemical biosensors; amperometry; glutamate; human embryonic stem cells; organoids
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nasr, B.; Chatterton, R.; Yong, J.H.M.; Jamshidi, P.; D’Abaco, G.M.; Bjorksten, A.R.; Kavehei, O.; Chana, G.; Dottori, M.; Skafidas, E. Self-Organized Nanostructure Modified Microelectrode for Sensitive Electrochemical Glutamate Detection in Stem Cells-Derived Brain Organoids. Biosensors 2018, 8, 14.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Biosensors EISSN 2079-6374 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top