The development of reliable biosensing platforms plays a key role in the detection of proteins in clinically and environmentally derived samples for diagnostics, as well as for process monitoring in biotechnological productions. For this purpose, the biosensor has to be stable and reproducible, and highly sensitive to detect potentially extremely low concentrations and prevent the nonspecific binding of interfering compounds. In this review, we present an overview of recently published (2017–2019) immobilization techniques for aptamers on gold electrodes for the electrochemical detection of proteins. These include the direct immobilization of thiolated aptamers and the utilization of short linkers, streptavidin/biotin interaction, as well as DNA nanostructures and reduced graphene oxide as immobilization platforms. Applied strategies for signal amplification and the prevention of biofouling are additionally discussed, as they play a crucial role in the design of biosensors. While a wide variety of amplification strategies are already available, future investigations should aim to establish suitable antifouling strategies that are compatible with electrochemical measurements. The focus of our review lies on the detailed discussion of the underlying principles and the presentation of utilized chemical protocols in order to provide the reader with promising ideas and profound knowledge of the subject, as well as an update on recent discoveries and achievements.
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