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Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles for Therapeutic Applications in Bone Regeneration

by Tanya J. Levingstone 1,2,3,4,†, Simona Herbaj 1,2,† and Nicholas J. Dunne 1,2,4,5,6,7,*
1
School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland
2
Centre for Medical Engineering Research, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Stokes Building, Collins Avenue, Dublin 9, Ireland
3
Tissue Engineering Research Group, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2, Ireland
4
Trinity Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 9, Ireland
5
School of Pharmacy, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK
6
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
7
Advanced Materials and Bioengineering Research Centre (AMBER), Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland and Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1570; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111570
Received: 27 September 2019 / Revised: 19 October 2019 / Accepted: 1 November 2019 / Published: 6 November 2019
Bone injuries and diseases constitute a burden both socially and economically, as the consequences of a lack of effective treatments affect both the patients’ quality of life and the costs on the health systems. This impended need has led the research community’s efforts to establish efficacious bone tissue engineering solutions. There has been a recent focus on the use of biomaterial-based nanoparticles for the delivery of therapeutic factors. Among the biomaterials being considered to date, calcium phosphates have emerged as one of the most promising materials for bone repair applications due to their osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity and their ability to be resorbed in the body. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles have received particular attention as non-viral vectors for gene therapy, as factors such as plasmid DNAs, microRNAs (miRNA) and silencing RNA (siRNAs) can be easily incorporated on their surface. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles loaded with therapeutic factors have also been delivered to the site of bone injury using scaffolds and hydrogels. This review provides an extensive overview of the current state-of-the-art relating to the design and synthesis of calcium phosphate nanoparticles as carriers for therapeutic factors, the mechanisms of therapeutic factors’ loading and release, and their application in bone tissue engineering. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone tissue engineering; calcium phosphates; drug delivery; gene therapy; nanoparticle; non-viral vectors; therapeutic delivery bone tissue engineering; calcium phosphates; drug delivery; gene therapy; nanoparticle; non-viral vectors; therapeutic delivery
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Levingstone, T.J.; Herbaj, S.; Dunne, N.J. Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles for Therapeutic Applications in Bone Regeneration. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1570.

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