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Open AccessArticle

An Assessment of the Effect of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using Sage Leaves (Salvia officinalis L.) on Germinated Plants of Maize (Zea mays L.)

1
Department of Viticulture and Enology, Faculty of Horticulture, Mendel University in Brno, Valticka 337, CZ-691 44 Lednice, Czech Republic
2
Department of Human Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackeho 1946/1, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic
3
Department of Research and Development, Prevention Medicals, Tovarni 342, 742 13 Studenka-Butovice, Czech Republic
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Department of Food and Feed Safety, Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analyses, Faculty of Pharmacy with Division of Laboratory Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 211, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland
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School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7QB, UK
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Research Center for Environmental Monitoring and Modeling, VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, 334 Nguyen Trai Street, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
8
Biosorption and Wastewater Treatment Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied and Computer Sciences, Vaal University of Technology, P. Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1550; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111550
Received: 9 September 2019 / Revised: 16 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 31 October 2019
AgNPs have attracted considerable attention in many applications including industrial use, and their antibacterial properties have been widely investigated. Due to the green synthesis process employed, the nanoparticle surface can be coated with molecules with biologically important characteristics. It has been reported that increased use of nanoparticles elevates the risk of their release into the environment. However, little is known about the behaviour of AgNPs in the eco-environment. In this study, the effect of green synthesized AgNPs on germinated plants of maize was examined. The effects on germination, basic growth and physiological parameters of the plants were monitored. Moreover, the effect of AgNPs was compared with that of Ag(I) ions in the form of AgNO3 solution. It was found that the growth inhibition of the above-ground parts of plants was about 40%, and AgNPs exhibited a significant effect on photosynthetic pigments. Significant differences in the following parameters were observed: weights of the caryopses and fresh weight (FW) of primary roots after 96 h of exposure to Ag(I) ions and AgNPs compared to the control and between Ag compounds. In addition, the coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG) between the control and the AgNPs varied and that between the Ag(I) ions and AgNPs was also different. Phytotoxicity was proved in the following sequence: control < AgNPs < Ag(I) ions. View Full-Text
Keywords: green synthesis; thiol compounds; phytotoxicity; phyto-nanotechnology; plant physiology green synthesis; thiol compounds; phytotoxicity; phyto-nanotechnology; plant physiology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sehnal, K.; Hosnedlova, B.; Docekalova, M.; Stankova, M.; Uhlirova, D.; Tothova, Z.; Kepinska, M.; Milnerowicz, H.; Fernandez, C.; Ruttkay-Nedecky, B.; Nguyen, H.V.; Ofomaja, A.; Sochor, J.; Kizek, R. An Assessment of the Effect of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using Sage Leaves (Salvia officinalis L.) on Germinated Plants of Maize (Zea mays L.). Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1550.

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