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Article

Toxicity Testing of Pristine and Aged Silver Nanoparticles in Real Wastewaters Using Bioluminescent Pseudomonas putida

1
School of Life Sciences, NanoSafety Research Group, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
2
Sciences and Technologies, Lille 1 University, Villeneuve d’Ascq 59650, France
3
Scottish Water, Juniper House, Heriot-Watt Research Park, Edinburgh EH14 4AP, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paul Bertsch and Jonathan Judy
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano6030049
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 25 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineered Nanomaterials in the Environment)
Impact of aging on nanoparticle toxicity in real matrices is scarcely investigated due to a lack of suitable methodologies. Herein, the toxicity of pristine and aged silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to a bioluminescent Pseudomonas putida bioreporter was measured in spiked crude and final wastewater samples (CWs and FWs, respectively) collected from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Results showed lower toxicity of pristine Ag NPs in CWs than in FWs. The effect of the matrix on the eventual Ag NP toxicity was related to multiple physico-chemical parameters (biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) pH, ammonia, sulfide and chloride) based on a multivariate analysis. However, no collection site effect was concluded. Aged Ag NPs (up to eight weeks) were found less toxic than pristine Ag NPs in CWs; evident increased aggregation and decreased dissolution were associated with aging. However, Ag NPs exhibited consistent toxicity in FWs despite aging; comparable results were obtained in artificial wastewater (AW) simulating effluent. The study demonstrates the potency of performing nanoparticle acute toxicity testing in real and complex matrices such as wastewaters using relevant bacterial bioreporters. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticle; ecotoxicity; aging; bioluminescence; bacterial bioreporter; wastewater nanoparticle; ecotoxicity; aging; bioluminescence; bacterial bioreporter; wastewater
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mallevre, F.; Alba, C.; Milne, C.; Gillespie, S.; Fernandes, T.F.; Aspray, T.J. Toxicity Testing of Pristine and Aged Silver Nanoparticles in Real Wastewaters Using Bioluminescent Pseudomonas putida. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 49. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano6030049

AMA Style

Mallevre F, Alba C, Milne C, Gillespie S, Fernandes TF, Aspray TJ. Toxicity Testing of Pristine and Aged Silver Nanoparticles in Real Wastewaters Using Bioluminescent Pseudomonas putida. Nanomaterials. 2016; 6(3):49. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano6030049

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mallevre, Florian, Camille Alba, Craig Milne, Simon Gillespie, Teresa F. Fernandes, and Thomas J. Aspray. 2016. "Toxicity Testing of Pristine and Aged Silver Nanoparticles in Real Wastewaters Using Bioluminescent Pseudomonas putida" Nanomaterials 6, no. 3: 49. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano6030049

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