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Article

New Insights on the Conversion Reaction Mechanism in Metal Oxide Electrodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries

1
Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid, Spain
2
Dpto. Ingeniería y Ciencia de los Materiales y del Transporte, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
3
Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC–Universidad de Sevilla), Avda. Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sonia Dsoke and Mario Marinaro
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(4), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11040966
Received: 1 March 2021 / Revised: 25 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 April 2021 / Published: 9 April 2021
Due to the abundance and low cost of exchanged metal, sodium-ion batteries have attracted increasing research attention for the massive energy storage associated with renewable energy sources. Nickel oxide (NiO) thin films have been prepared by magnetron sputtering (MS) deposition under an oblique angle configuration (OAD) and used as electrodes for Na-ion batteries. A systematic chemical, structural and electrochemical analysis of this electrode has been carried out. The electrochemical characterization by galvanostatic charge–discharge cycling and cyclic voltammetry has revealed a certain loss of performance after the initial cycling of the battery. The conversion reaction of NiO with sodium ions during the discharge process to generate sodium oxide and Ni metal has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and micro-Raman analysis. Likewise, it has been determined that the charging process is not totally reversible, causing a reduction in battery capacity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Na-ion batteries; anode; conversion reaction; magnetron sputtering; nickel oxide Na-ion batteries; anode; conversion reaction; magnetron sputtering; nickel oxide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mosa, J.; García-García, F.J.; González-Elipe, A.R.; Aparicio, M. New Insights on the Conversion Reaction Mechanism in Metal Oxide Electrodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 966. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11040966

AMA Style

Mosa J, García-García FJ, González-Elipe AR, Aparicio M. New Insights on the Conversion Reaction Mechanism in Metal Oxide Electrodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(4):966. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11040966

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mosa, Jadra, Francisco J. García-García, Agustín R. González-Elipe, and Mario Aparicio. 2021. "New Insights on the Conversion Reaction Mechanism in Metal Oxide Electrodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries" Nanomaterials 11, no. 4: 966. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11040966

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