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Open AccessArticle

Dry Generation of CeO2 Nanoparticles and Deposition onto a Co-Culture of A549 and THP-1 Cells in Air-Liquid Interface—Dosimetry Considerations and Comparison to Submerged Exposure

1
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 17177 Sweden
2
Comprehensive Molecular Analytics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, 81379 München, Germany
3
Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm11418, Sweden
4
Inhalation Sciences, Hälsovägen 7-9, 141 57 Huddinge, Sweden
5
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040618
Received: 14 February 2020 / Revised: 9 March 2020 / Accepted: 24 March 2020 / Published: 27 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lung Cell Toxicity of Metal-containing Nanoparticles)
Relevant in vitro assays that can simulate exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) via inhalation are urgently needed. Presently, the most common method employed is to expose lung cells under submerged conditions, but the cellular responses to NPs under such conditions might differ from those observed at the more physiological air-liquid interface (ALI). The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and inflammatory potential of CeO2 NPs (NM-212) in a co-culture of A549 lung epithelial cells and differentiated THP-1 cells in both ALI and submerged conditions. Cellular dose was examined quantitatively using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The role of serum and LPS-priming for IL-1β release was further tested in THP-1 cells in submerged exposure. An aerosol of CeO2 NPs was generated by using the PreciseInhale® system, and NPs were deposited on the co-culture using XposeALI®. No or minor cytotoxicity and no increased release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, MCP-1) were observed after exposure of the co-culture in ALI (max 5 µg/cm2) or submerged (max 22 µg/cm2) conditions. In contrast, CeO2 NPs cause clear IL-1β release in monocultures of macrophage-like THP-1, independent of the presence of serum and LPS-priming. This study demonstrates a useful approach for comparing effects at various in-vitro conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanotoxicology; air-liquid interface; PreciseInhale; dosimetry; inflammation; ceria nanotoxicology; air-liquid interface; PreciseInhale; dosimetry; inflammation; ceria
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Cappellini, F.; Di Bucchianico, S.; Karri, V.; Latvala, S.; Malmlöf, M.; Kippler, M.; Elihn, K.; Hedberg, J.; Odnevall Wallinder, I.; Gerde, P.; Karlsson, H.L. Dry Generation of CeO2 Nanoparticles and Deposition onto a Co-Culture of A549 and THP-1 Cells in Air-Liquid Interface—Dosimetry Considerations and Comparison to Submerged Exposure. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 618.

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