Special Issue "Lung Cell Toxicity of Metal-containing Nanoparticles"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (14 February 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Hanna Karlsson
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
Interests: nanotoxicology; genotoxicity; dissolution/biosolubility; air–liquid interface exposure
Prof. Andrea Hartwig
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
Interests: metal toxicology; nanotoxicology; DNA damage repair and signaling; oxidative stress

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lung cell toxicity is a critical aspect in the field of nanotoxicology due to the fact that inhalation is an important exposure route. Among the various nanomaterials present in society, many contain metals. The metal-containing nanoparticles show differences in toxicity depending, e.g., on size, surface reactivity, and dissolution kinetics. The cellular effects include inflammation, genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and epigenetic alterations.

This Special Issue highlights recent advances in the understanding of lung cell toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles. It focuses on mechanisms underlying toxicity, links to nanoparticle characteristics, in vitro–in vivo correlations, and novel methods, such as air–liquid interface exposures and the use of cocultures.

The Special Issue is open to original research articles as well as review papers that help researchers around the world understand the lung cell toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles, with a focus on novel mechanisms and methods.

Dr. Hanna Karlsson
Prof. Andrea Hartwig
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Lung cells
  • Nanoparticles
  • Toxicity
  • Metals
  • Inflammation
  • Genotoxicity
  • Epigenetic effects
  • Dissolution
  • Biosolubility
  • Air–liquid interface exposure
  • Co-cultures

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Understanding Dissolution Rates via Continuous Flow Systems with Physiologically Relevant Metal Ion Saturation in Lysosome
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020311 - 12 Feb 2020
Abstract
Dissolution rates of nanomaterials can be decisive for acute in vivo toxicity (via the released ions) and for biopersistence (of the remaining particles). Continuous flow systems (CFSs) can screen for both aspects, but operational parameters need to be adjusted to the specific physiological [...] Read more.
Dissolution rates of nanomaterials can be decisive for acute in vivo toxicity (via the released ions) and for biopersistence (of the remaining particles). Continuous flow systems (CFSs) can screen for both aspects, but operational parameters need to be adjusted to the specific physiological compartment, including local metal ion saturation. CFSs have two adjustable parameters: the volume flow-rate and the initial particle loading. Here we explore the pulmonary lysosomal dissolution of nanomaterials containing the metals Al, Ba, Zn, Cu over a wide range of volume flow-rates in a single experiment. We identify the ratio of particle surface area (SA) per volume flow-rate (SA/V) as critical parameter that superimposes all dissolution rates of the same material. Three complementary benchmark materials—ZnO (quick dissolution), TiO2 (very slow dissolution), and BaSO4 (partial dissolution)—consistently identify the SA/V range of 0.01 to 0.03 h/cm as predictive for lysosomal pulmonary biodissolution. We then apply the identified method to compare against non-nanoforms of the same substances and test aluminosilicates. For BaSO4 and TiO2, we find high similarity of the dissolution rates of their respective nanoform and non-nanoform, governed by the local ion solubility limit at relevant SA/V ranges. For aluminosilicates, we find high similarity of the dissolution rates of two Kaolin nanoforms but significant dissimilarity against Bentonite despite the similar composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lung Cell Toxicity of Metal-containing Nanoparticles)
Open AccessArticle
Size, Surface Functionalization, and Genotoxicity of Gold Nanoparticles In Vitro
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020271 - 06 Feb 2020
Abstract
Several studies suggested that gold nanoparticles (NPs) could be genotoxic in vitro and in vivo. However, gold NPs currently produced present a wide range of sizes and functionalization, which could affect their interactions with the environment or with biological structures and, thus, modify [...] Read more.
Several studies suggested that gold nanoparticles (NPs) could be genotoxic in vitro and in vivo. However, gold NPs currently produced present a wide range of sizes and functionalization, which could affect their interactions with the environment or with biological structures and, thus, modify their toxic effects. In this study, we investigated the role of surface charge in determining the genotoxic potential of gold NPs, as measured by the induction of DNA damage (comet assay) and chromosomal damage (micronucleus assay) in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. The cellular uptake of gold NPs was assessed by hyperspectral imaging. Two core sizes (~5 nm and ~20 nm) and three functionalizations representing negative (carboxylate), positive (ammonium), and neutral (poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)ylated) surface charges were examined. Cationic ammonium gold NPs were clearly more cytotoxic than their anionic and neutral counterparts, but genotoxicity was not simply dependent on functionalization or size, since DNA damage was induced by 20-nm ammonium and PEGylated gold NPs, while micronucleus induction was increased by 5-nm ammonium and 20-nm PEGylated gold NPs. The 5-nm carboxylated gold NPs were not genotoxic, and evidence on the genotoxicity of the 20-nm carboxylated gold NPs was restricted to a positive result at the lowest dose in the micronucleus assay. When interpreting the results, it has to be taken into account that cytotoxicity limited the doses available for the ammonium-functionalized gold NPs and that gold NPs were earlier described to interfere with the comet assay procedure, possibly resulting in a false positive result. In conclusion, our findings show that the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of gold NPs are clearly enhanced by positive surface charge, but neither functionalization nor size can single-handedly account for the genotoxic effects of the gold NPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lung Cell Toxicity of Metal-containing Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
Lung Toxicity Analysis of Nano-Sized Kaolin and Bentonite: Missing Indications for a Common Grouping
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020204 - 24 Jan 2020
Abstract
Kaolin and bentonite (nanoclay NM-600) are nanostructured aluminosilicates that share a similar chemical composition, platelet-like morphology, and high binding capacity for biomolecules. To investigate if these material-based criteria allow for a common grouping, we prepared particle suspensions of kaolin and bentonite with a [...] Read more.
Kaolin and bentonite (nanoclay NM-600) are nanostructured aluminosilicates that share a similar chemical composition, platelet-like morphology, and high binding capacity for biomolecules. To investigate if these material-based criteria allow for a common grouping, we prepared particle suspensions of kaolin and bentonite with a similar hydrodynamic diameter and administered them to NR8383 alveolar macrophages in vitro and also to a rat lung using quartz DQ12 as a reference material. Bentonite was far more bioactive in vitro, indicated by a lower threshold for the release of enzymes, tumor necrosis factor α, and H2O2. In addition, in the lung, the early effects of bentonite exceeded those of kaolin and even those of quartz, due to strongly increased numbers of inflammatory cells, and elevated concentrations of total protein and fibronectin within the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The pro-inflammatory effects of bentonite decreased over time, although assemblies of particle-laden alveolar macrophages (CD68 positive), numerous type-2 epithelial cells (immunopositive for pro-surfactant protein C), and hypertrophic lung epithelia persisted until day 21. At this point in time, kaolin-treated lungs were completely recovered, whereas quartz DQ12 had induced a progressive inflammation. We conclude that bentonite is far more bioactive than equally sized kaolin. This argues against a common grouping of aluminosilicates, previously suggested for different kaolin qualities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lung Cell Toxicity of Metal-containing Nanoparticles)
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