Next Article in Journal
Green Synthesized Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Ameliorate Defence and Antioxidant Enzymes in Lens culinaris
Previous Article in Journal
Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Studies on Ru and Rh Nanoparticles as Potential X-Ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography (XFCT) Contrast Agents
Previous Article in Special Issue
Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Gold Nanoparticles In Vitro: Role of Surface Functionalization and Particle Size
Open AccessArticle

Understanding Dissolution Rates via Continuous Flow Systems with Physiologically Relevant Metal Ion Saturation in Lysosome

1
BASF SE, Dept. Experimental Toxicology and Ecology and Dept. Advanced Materials Research, 67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany
2
Institute of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biology, Chemistry & Pharmacy, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany
3
National Institute of Public Health and the Environment RIVM, 3721 Bilthoven, The Netherlands
4
Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, 2333 Leiden, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020311
Received: 20 December 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2020 / Accepted: 7 February 2020 / Published: 12 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lung Cell Toxicity of Metal-containing Nanoparticles)
Dissolution rates of nanomaterials can be decisive for acute in vivo toxicity (via the released ions) and for biopersistence (of the remaining particles). Continuous flow systems (CFSs) can screen for both aspects, but operational parameters need to be adjusted to the specific physiological compartment, including local metal ion saturation. CFSs have two adjustable parameters: the volume flow-rate and the initial particle loading. Here we explore the pulmonary lysosomal dissolution of nanomaterials containing the metals Al, Ba, Zn, Cu over a wide range of volume flow-rates in a single experiment. We identify the ratio of particle surface area (SA) per volume flow-rate (SA/V) as critical parameter that superimposes all dissolution rates of the same material. Three complementary benchmark materials—ZnO (quick dissolution), TiO2 (very slow dissolution), and BaSO4 (partial dissolution)—consistently identify the SA/V range of 0.01 to 0.03 h/cm as predictive for lysosomal pulmonary biodissolution. We then apply the identified method to compare against non-nanoforms of the same substances and test aluminosilicates. For BaSO4 and TiO2, we find high similarity of the dissolution rates of their respective nanoform and non-nanoform, governed by the local ion solubility limit at relevant SA/V ranges. For aluminosilicates, we find high similarity of the dissolution rates of two Kaolin nanoforms but significant dissimilarity against Bentonite despite the similar composition.
Keywords: dissolution; dissolution rate; nanomaterial grouping; risk assessment; 3R method; regulatory hazard assessment dissolution; dissolution rate; nanomaterial grouping; risk assessment; 3R method; regulatory hazard assessment
MDPI and ACS Style

Keller, J.G.; Peijnenburg, W.; Werle, K.; Landsiedel, R.; Wohlleben, W. Understanding Dissolution Rates via Continuous Flow Systems with Physiologically Relevant Metal Ion Saturation in Lysosome. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 311.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop