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Open AccessReview

An Overview of Micro- and Nanoemulsions as Vehicles for Essential Oils: Formulation, Preparation and Stability

School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 135;
Received: 23 December 2019 / Revised: 9 January 2020 / Accepted: 10 January 2020 / Published: 12 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology in Agriculture and Food Industry)
The interest around essential oils is constantly increasing thanks to their biological properties exploitable in several fields, from pharmaceuticals to food and agriculture. However, their widespread use and marketing are still restricted due to their poor physico-chemical properties; i.e., high volatility, thermal decomposition, low water solubility, and stability issues. At the moment, the most suitable approach to overcome such limitations is based on the development of proper formulation strategies. One of the approaches suggested to achieve this goal is the so-called encapsulation process through the preparation of aqueous nano-dispersions. Among them, micro- and nanoemulsions are the most studied thanks to the ease of formulation, handling and to their manufacturing costs. In this direction, this review intends to offer an overview of the formulation, preparation and stability parameters of micro- and nanoemulsions. Specifically, recent literature has been examined in order to define the most common practices adopted (materials and fabrication methods), highlighting their suitability and effectiveness. Finally, relevant points related to formulations, such as optimization, characterization, stability and safety, not deeply studied or clarified yet, were discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oil; nanoemulsion; microemulsion; surfactant; co-surfactant essential oil; nanoemulsion; microemulsion; surfactant; co-surfactant
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pavoni, L.; Perinelli, D.R.; Bonacucina, G.; Cespi, M.; Palmieri, G.F. An Overview of Micro- and Nanoemulsions as Vehicles for Essential Oils: Formulation, Preparation and Stability. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 135.

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