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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Indocyanine Green Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles: Physicochemical Characterization and Interaction Studies with Caco-2 Cell Line by Light and Transmission Electron Microscopy

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Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
2
Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine-Histology and Embryology Unit, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
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Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
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IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation and Department of Clinical-Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010133
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 8 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 11 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nanophotonics, Characterization, Modelling, and Nanodevices)
Biomedical applications of nanoparticles (NPs) have reached an increasing development in recent years. Recently, we demonstrated that newly synthesized poly (ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles (PECA-NPs) are possible antitumor agents due to their cytotoxicity for cancer cells. Indocyanine green (ICG), an amphiphilic tricarbocyanine fluorescent dye, is widely used for the detection of tumoral extension in different organs during clinical surgery. Moreover, this fluorescent agent is unstable and it has a rapid clearance in physiological conditions in vivo. In this study, ICG was charged in PECA-NPs to improve its aqueous stability and make easier its use for the identification of tumor cells. Microscopic and ultrastructural aspects concerning the related in vitro interactions between ICG-loaded NPs and tumor cell culture were investigated. Obtained results showed an effective stabilization of ICG; furthermore, color inclusions inside the cells treated with ICG-loaded NPs demonstrated the internalization of NPs with associated ICG. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis demonstrated the cytoplasmic presence of coated vesicles (Ø ≤ 100 nm), hypothesizing their involvement in the mechanism of endocytosis. Therefore, ICG-loaded NPs could be proposed as agents for tumor diagnosis, hypothesizing also in the future a specific therapeutic treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: indocyanine green; polymeric nanoparticles; fluorescence imaging; indocyanine green stability; tumor treatment and detection indocyanine green; polymeric nanoparticles; fluorescence imaging; indocyanine green stability; tumor treatment and detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Obinu, A.; Gavini, E.; Rassu, G.; Riva, F.; Calligaro, A.; Bonferoni, M.C.; Maestri, M.; Giunchedi, P. Indocyanine Green Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles: Physicochemical Characterization and Interaction Studies with Caco-2 Cell Line by Light and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 133.

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