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Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Methods to Evaluate the Influence of an Automated Vehicle’s Driving Behavior on Pedestrians: Wizard of Oz, Virtual Reality, and Video

1
Chair of Ergonomics, Technical University of Munich, 85748 Garching, Germany
2
BMW Group, New Technologies, 85748 Garching, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Information 2020, 11(6), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/info11060291
Received: 5 May 2020 / Revised: 22 May 2020 / Accepted: 26 May 2020 / Published: 29 May 2020
Integrating automated vehicles into mixed traffic entails several challenges. Their driving behavior must be designed such that is understandable for all human road users, and that it ensures an efficient and safe traffic system. Previous studies investigated these issues, especially regarding the communication between automated vehicles and pedestrians. These studies used different methods, e.g., videos, virtual reality, or Wizard of Oz vehicles. However, the extent of transferability between these studies is still unknown. Therefore, we replicated the same study design in four different settings: two video, one virtual reality, and one Wizard of Oz setup. In the first video setup, videos from the virtual reality setup were used, while in the second setup, we filmed the Wizard of Oz vehicle. In all studies, participants stood at the roadside in a shared space. An automated vehicle approached from the left, using different driving profiles characterized by changing speed to communicate its intention to let the pedestrians cross the road. Participants were asked to recognize the intention of the automated vehicle and to press a button as soon as they realized this intention. Results revealed differences in the intention recognition time between the four study setups, as well as in the correct intention rate. The results from vehicle–pedestrian interaction studies published in recent years that used different study settings can therefore only be compared to each other to a limited extent. View Full-Text
Keywords: (automated) vehicle–pedestrian interaction; implicit communication; mixed traffic; virtual reality; Wizard of Oz; video; setup comparison/method comparison (automated) vehicle–pedestrian interaction; implicit communication; mixed traffic; virtual reality; Wizard of Oz; video; setup comparison/method comparison
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Fuest, T.; Schmidt, E.; Bengler, K. Comparison of Methods to Evaluate the Influence of an Automated Vehicle’s Driving Behavior on Pedestrians: Wizard of Oz, Virtual Reality, and Video. Information 2020, 11, 291.

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